Table 1: Stratified meta-analyses of underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and the risk of lung cancer.

From: Body mass index and risk of lung cancer: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis

Studies groupsNRR (95% CI)HeterogeneityME-T
I2P
All studies141.24(1.20–1.27)24.30.17F0.09
Sex
 Male61.25(1.21–1.29)31.70.19F0.33
 Female61.20(1.13–1.27)47.00.09R0.09
Geographic location
 Europe31.24(1.20–1.27)9.60.48F0.23
 North America41.21(1.15–1.27)32.10.23F0.20
 Asia71.28(1.23–1.34)0.00.45F0.08
Body size assessment
 Measured111.25(1.21–1.29)1.20.44F0.28
 Self-reported31.19(1.11–1.27)67.60.05R0.24
Smoking status
 Current smokers41.31(1.10–1.57)0.00.78F0.68
 Ex-smokers41.40(0.82–2.36)70.50.01R0.21
 Non-smokers51.18(0.90–1.54)0.00.91F0.19
Number of cases
 <50041.27(1.21–1.34)46.60.11F0.15
 500–100041.21(1.15–1.27)26.10.26F0.25
 ≥100061.23(1.175–1.29)10.40.35F0.94
Duration of follow-up
 <10 years71.19(1.12–1.26)0.00.67F0.16
 ≥10 years71.24(1.20–1.27)42.60.08R0.09
Adjustment for age, smoking and education
 Yes41.30(1.12–1.51)22.30.27F0.12
 No101.23 (1.20–1.27)29.50.16F0.25
Adjustment for age, smoking and physical activity
 Yes71.25(1.21–1.30)0.00.70F0.29
 No71.21(1.15–1.27)46.60.06R0.13
Adjustment for age, smoking and alcohol consumption
 Yes81.25(1.21–1.29)31.20.14F0.41
 No61.21(1.15–1.27)24.30.41F0.11
  1. Note: All the groups were compared with normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2) as the reference category. N: Number of the studies; M: Statistical method; R: Random model; F: Fixed model; E–T: Egger’s test