Figure 5 | Scientific Reports

Figure 5

From: Evolution and Function of Dinosaur Teeth at Ultramicrostructural Level Revealed Using Synchrotron Transmission X-ray Microscopy

Figure 5

Two-dimensional (2D) multi-tissue mechanical simulations of a long and sharp saurischian tooth.

(A) Lingual view of a saurischian tooth. (A’) Mesial or distal view of a saurischian tooth. (A”) Mesh structure of the tooth model generated by FEA software. This 2D geometric model is used in the simulations. Black, blue and red arrows show the directions of applied external forces. (B–D) A force acts on the apex of a saurischian tooth, which consists of various dental compositions near the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ), such as E–BD (B), E–MD–BD (C) and E–MD–BD, with interglobular porous space (IGS) structures (D). (EG) A net force acts normally on the whole enamel surface of a saurischian tooth, which includes various dental compositions near the DEJ, such as E–BD (E), E–MD–BD (F) and E–MD–BD with IGS structures (G). Small black arrows inside the tooth show the distribution of the displacement field inside it when an external loading is applied to it. The pointing direction and length of an arrow are the direction and relative magnitude of the displacement, respectively. (HJ) A force acts on the lingual or labial surface of a saurischian tooth, which is consists of various dental compositions near the DEJ, such as E–BD (H), E–MD–BD (I) and E–MD–BD, with IGS structures (J). Here, E: enamel; BD: bulk dentin; and MD: mantle dentin.

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