Phase diagrams of 10- to 20-year periodicity introductions versus average relative temperature (ART).
(a) Mutation experiment (left: fixation; middle: no fixation; right: extinction). (b) Control (no mutation) (left: survival; right: extinction). Green areas: extinction; orange: fixation of periodicity; blue: no fixation (darker colours indicate higher probabilities). The extinction threshold of the Allee effect is set as Nc = 100. The parameters for annual mortality are k = 250 and λ = 1.005. The penalty of reproduction for immature periodical adults is set to be dependent on the shortage of accumulated temperature. The results are based on 50 simulation runs for each condition.