Effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on energy metabolism in MCF7 cells treated with vitamin C.
(a) Effects of NAC on metabolites of glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the PPP in MCF7 cells stimulated with vitamin C. Heatmap depicts log2-transformed ratios of measured sample to control sample (None) concentrations. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 (comparing lanes 3 and 4). (b) Effects of NAC on levels of AMP, ADP, ATP, GMP, GDP, GTP and adenylate energy charge. Bar graphs indicate fold changes relative to control sample (None). Adenylate energy charge calculation: (ATP + 0.5 × ADP)/(ATP + ADP + AMP). Data are presented as means ± SD of triplicate experiments. **P < 0.01.