Figure 3 : Sialic acid (SA)-binding lectins affected Tulane virus (TV) infectivity differently.

From: Tulane virus recognizes sialic acids as cellular receptors

Figure 3

(A) Sambucus nigra lectin (SNL) inhibited, while Maackia amurensis leukoagglutinin (MAL) increased TV infectivity in LLC-MK2 cells. Prior to TV infection, the LLC-MK2 cells were treated with SA-binding lectins; 100 μg/mL of SNL or MAL in 1x phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH7.4). Mock control cells were treated with PBS only. The mean values (plaque numbers) of the mock/control group were set as 100%, while percentages (%) of the plaque numbers for individual wells of both mock/control and neuraminidase-treatment groups relative to the mean values of the mock/control group were calculated and shown. The statistical differences between data groups are indicated. Each experiment was repeated at least eight times. (B and C) Dose-response effects of SNL and MAL at different concentrations on TV infectivity in LLC-MK2 cells. The mean value (plaque numbers) of the control group without SNL (B) or MAL (C) treatment (0 μg/mL) was set 100%, while the reduction (B) or enhancement (C) rates (%) of the SNL/MAL treatment groups were calculated and shown. Each experiment was repeated at least four times. The statistical differences between the control groups (0 μg/mL SNL/MAL) and the SNL/MAL treatment groups are indicated. “ns”, “*”, “**”, and “***” indicate P values > 0.05, <0.05, <0.01, and <0.001, respectively.