Figure 3 : Laser does not cause DNA damage (Non-genotoxic).

From: Molecular pathway of near-infrared laser phototoxicity involves ATF-4 orchestrated ER stress

Figure 3

Plasmid cleavage assay was performed using PUC19 and following laser treatments with varying doses (a) and wavelengths (b) plasmid was analyzed by gel electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel that was quantitated by densitometry (n = 3). HaCaT (c) cells were treated with different doses of laser and genomic DNA was assayed for number of abasic sites. UV treatment was used as a positive control, Significance was based on one-way ANOVA with the respective controls (n = 3). (d and e) Ames test was performed on TA100 and TA98 strains of the Salmonella typhimurium using different doses of laser and revertants were quantitated on 5th day after treatment. Significance was noted as per the manufacturer’s manual (n = 3). HaCaT cells (f) (Scale bars = 200 μm) or mice (g) were treated with phototoxic laser dose and γ-H2AX immunostaining was performed to assess DNA damage. γ-radiation (10 Gy) was used as positive control. Scale bars = 70 μm. (h) HaCaT cells were treated with radiation (10 Gy) and sub-phototoxic laser doses and PCR arrays were performed. Representative scatter plot of differentially regulated genes (fold change ≥ 2) are shown. Detailed list of genes are available in supporting materials (n = 2). Statistical significance are indicated as P< 0.0005 (***) and <0.00001(****).