Figure 1 : Schematic illustration depicting the formation of GNRs, EfGQDs and pLGQDs, and the immobilization of pLGQDs on spore-wall via electrostatic deposition to form the spore-GQD hybrid.

From: Graphene Quantum Dots Interfaced with Single Bacterial Spore for Bio-Electromechanical Devices: A Graphene Cytobot

Figure 1

(a) A diamond knife cleaves HOPG into GNBs of desired width, (b) GNBs exfoliate into GNRs via oxidation/sonication under mild acidic condition, and (c) as-prepared GNRs unzip into EfGQDs through a second round of vigorous oxidation/sonication with KMnO4 and NaNO3 in concentrated H2SO4 (TEM images in supplementary information Fig. S1). (d) EfGQDs are functionalized with poly-L-Lysine to produce pLGQDs, and (e) graphenic cytobots are fabricated by electrostatic assembly: NAM chemistry on the spore wall electrostatically couples with positively charged poly-L-Lysine on pLGQDs resulting in pLGQD/spores bio-hybrid tunneling device.