Figure 3 : Comparison between conventional in vitro and synchronized in vitro processes:

From: Live visualizations of single isolated tubulin protein self-assembly via tunneling current: effect of electromagnetic pumping during spontaneous growth of microtubule

Figure 3

(a). Dynamic instability for an animal, plant and fungi samples; shows growth, catastrophe and recovery, as observed in conventional in vitro process. (b). Length variation for 6.1 seconds of growth for Porcine brain neuron-extracted tubulins, when we pump an ac signal (yellow trace in oscilloscope-captured image), emission from solution is measured as an ac signal output (blue). Growth stopped by rapid drying the micrometer thick film after ac pumping at 2.001 seconds (data of 100 chips each with 10 cells and 20,000 events in 6.1 seconds). We pump with ~1 μs pulse, and dry; then ~2 μs pulse, and dry; this way up to 20 ms. Then measure length of every single microtubule on the entire chip to get <L>, so we see variation 1 μs to 20 ms, with constant drying time. AFM image of the chip, scale bar from left to right are, 30 nm (first four), 300 nm (next four), 5 μm (next two). For AFM, Average maximum microtubule length <L>, for ~100 samples, synthetic conditions optimized to standard deviation SD~±10 nm for Lmin ~ 200 nm and SD~±200 nm for Lmax ~24 μm. AFM images for the entire 6.1 seconds in conventional in vitro process. (c). AFM images of chip for the conventional in vitro process capture only tubulins, time-lapse kept identical, the scale bar is ~20 nm.