Figure 1 : Example of the difference between a time-respecting path (solid line) and a minimal path (dashed line).

From: Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

Figure 1

Here, we show a trip from Twickenham to Camden Town in London, and the minimal path would use only buses (marked in Blue). The optimal time-respecting path in this case is remarkably multi-modal: the bus layer is still used for the final segment, which is the same as for the minimal path, while the Rail layer (Red) and then the Metro layer (Green) are used for approaching the city center. [Figure created with Basemap Matplotlib Toolkit for Python using map tiles from (OpenStreetMap contributors48, licensed under Creative Commons BY-SA 2.0 licence. To view a copy of this license, visit]