Figure 8 | Scientific Reports

Figure 8

From: Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light

Figure 8

The putative pathway of blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor-derived cell damage.

In 661 W cells, blue LED light induces ROS production and S-opsin aggregation. The rapid ROS increase leads to mitochondrial damage and the MAPK activation or the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Activated MAPK and NF-κB induces the activation of caspase and leads to apoptotic cell death. Active NF-κB also activates autophagy and excessive autophagy leads to cell death. While, S-opsin aggregation causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor-derived cell death may be associated with both oxidative stress and ER stress.

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