The putative pathway of blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor-derived cell damage.
In 661 W cells, blue LED light induces ROS production and S-opsin aggregation. The rapid ROS increase leads to mitochondrial damage and the MAPK activation or the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Activated MAPK and NF-κB induces the activation of caspase and leads to apoptotic cell death. Active NF-κB also activates autophagy and excessive autophagy leads to cell death. While, S-opsin aggregation causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor-derived cell death may be associated with both oxidative stress and ER stress.