Blue LED light caused the primary retinal cell damage.
(A) Primary retinal cells were exposed to blue LED light for 24 h. The cell viability was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay. Blue LED light decreased the primary retinal cell viability. (B) Blue LED light increased the ROS level in primary retinal cells. (C, D) Immunostaining of cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the cleaved caspase-3 positive cells compared to control. (E, F) Double immunostaining for S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3 double positive cells (arrowhead). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). # indicates p < 0.05, ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (ANOVA). The scale bar represents 50 μm.