Table 1 The characteristics of participants at the baseline examination. Means ± SE. The p values were obtained using the t-test for continuous data and the chi-square test (Fisher's exact test) for categorical data

From: Relationship between Low Free Testosterone Levels and Loss of Muscle Mass

  Normal (n = 708) Sarcopenia (n = 249) p
Age (years) 58.1 ± 0.4 63.1 ± 0.8 <0.0001
≥60 years (n) 314 (44.4%) 168 (67.5%) <0.0001
Body height (cm) 164.9 ± 0.2 163.4 ± 0.4 0.0018
Body weight (kg) 65.0 ± 0.3 53.9 ± 0.4 <0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.9 ± 0.1 20.2 ± 0.1 <0.0001
% of body fat 21.8 ± 0.2 20.2 ± 0.3 <0.0001
Appendicular muscle mass (kg) 21.0 ± 0.1 17.2 ± 0.1 <0.0001
Skeletal muscle index (kg/m2) 7.7 ± 0.02 6.4 ± 0.02 <0.0001
Albumin (mg/ml) 44.4 ± 0.2 44.3 ± 0.2 0.6894
Total testosterone (ng/ml) 5.0 ± 0.06 5.3 ± 0.1 0.0431
Sex hormone binding globulin (nmol/l) 54.3 ± 1.3 71.4 ± 2.5 <0.0001
Calculated free testosterone (pg/ml) 78.6 ± 1.1 68.9 ± 1.8 <0.0001
Free testosterone (pg/ml) 13.4 ± 0.1 12.3 ± 0.3 0.0002
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 2363.6 ± 14.2 2170.3 ± 22.7 <0.0001
Total protein intake (g/day) 88.9 ± 0.6 80.9 ± 1.0 <0.0001
Vitamin D intake (µg/day) 10.3 ± 0.2 9.6 ± 0.4 0.1502
Leisure-time physical activity (METs × hour/day) 2.2 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.2 0.9518
Current smoker (n) 236 (33.3%) 111 (44.6%) 0.0015
With medical history    
Stroke (n) 26 (3.7%) 10 (4.0%) 0.8063
Heart disease (n) 86 (12.2%) 33 (13.3%) 0.6491
Cancer (n) 17 (2.4%) 13 (5.2%) 0.0281
Diabetes (n) 59 (8.3%) 34 (14.0%) 0.0148
Osteoporosis (n) 4 (0.6%) 10 (4.0%) <0.0001
Rheumatoid arthritis (n) 41 (5.8%) 18 (7.2%) 0.4171
  1. cFT and SHBG levels obtained from 327 normal men and 128 men with sarcopenia.