Figure 3 : Morphology and electrical characterization for a TiO2 film grown on ITO-coated glass at 150°C for a 60 min reaction time inside a microwave reactor with a 10 W/m power ramp rate.

From: Microwave-assisted Low-temperature Growth of Thin Films in Solution

Figure 3

(a) Scanning TEM image indicates 15–20 nm crystallites. High-resolution TEM (inset) confirms the presence of crystalline anatase. (b) Magnified SEM image of the film. (c) Large area SEM image of the film. (d) AFM image showing 100–200 nm self-sintered TiO2 grains. (e) Conductive AFM topography map. (f) Conductive AFM current map.