Figure 1 : Comparison of conventional and microwave-assisted solvothermal TiO2 thin film growth processes on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates (top) and a schematic of the microwave reaction scheme (bottom).

From: Microwave-assisted Low-temperature Growth of Thin Films in Solution

Figure 1

Quartz microwave vessels were secured in an Anton Paar Synthos 3000 microwave reactor and the substrates were suspended from the caps with custom designed glass baskets (shown bottom left). The pale yellow growth solution consisted of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) and a Ti-based sol-gel precursor. The conducting ITO layer absorbs microwave radiation and heats, creating a nucleation site for the TiO2 film to grow.