Cedro M K, Moles D R, Hodges S J. Adult orthodontics – who's doing what? J Orthod 2010; 37: 107–117.
Keim R G, Gottlieb E L, Nelson A H, Vogels D S. JCO Orthodontic Practice Study. Part 1 Trends. J Clin Orthod 2013; 47: 661–680.
American Association of Orthodontists. Smiles are in style. New study says adults are seeking orthodontic treatment in record numbers. http://mylifemysmile.org/cms/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Results-of-2012-AAO-Patient-Census-Survey_0.pdf (accessed January 2015).
Pabari S, Moles D R, Cunningham S J. Assessment of motivation and psychological characteristics of adult orthodontic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011; 140: e263–272.
Ali Z, Ashley M, West C. Factors to consider when treatment planning for patients seeking comprehensive aesthetic dental treatment. Dent Update 2013; 40: 526–533.
Newton J T, Cunningham S J. Great expectations: what do patients expect and how can expectations be managed? J Orthod 2013; 40: 112–117.
Hepburn S, Cunningham S. Body dysmorphic disorder in adult orthodontic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006; 130: 569–574.
Vulink N C, Rosenberg A, Plooij J M, Koole R, Bergé S J, Denys D. Body dysmorphic disorder screening in maxillofacial outpatients presenting for orthognathic surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008; 130: 385–391.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder: core interventions in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Nice Guidelines CG31, Novmber 2005. Clinical Guideline 31 (2005).
Eke, P I, Dye B A, Wei L, Thornton-Evans G O, Genco R J. Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010. J Dent Res 2012; 91: 914–920.
Kokich V G. It's worse than we thought! Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2013; 143: 155.
Cole E, Ray-Chaudhuri A, Vaidyanathan M, Johnson M, Sood S. Simplified basic periodontal examination (BPE) in children and adolescents: a guide for general dental practice. Dent Update 2014; 41: 328–377.
British Society of Periodontology. Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE). 2011 Online information available at http://www.bsperio.org.uk/publications/downloads/39_143748_bpe2011.pdf (accessed 27 April 2014).
Corbet E F. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 3. Periodontal disease and assessment of risk. Br Dent J 2012; 213: 111–121.
Richardson M E, Gormley J S. Lower arch crowding in the third decade. Eur J Orthod 1998; 20: 597–607.
Romero-Reyes M, Uyanik J M. Orofacial pain management: current perspectives. J Pain Res 2014; 7: 99–115.
Stohler C S, Zarb G A. On the management of temporomandibular disorders: a plea for a low-tech, high-prudence therapeutic approach. J Orofac Pain 1999; 13: 255–261.
International Association for Dental Research. Policy statement: temporomandibular disorders (TMD) 2010. http://www.aadronline.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3465 (accessed 6 April 2014).
Craig A D, Reiman, E M, Evans A, Bushnell M C. Functional imaging of an illusion of pain. Nature 1996; 384: 258–260.
Gatchel R J, Peng Y B, Peters M L, Fuchs P N, Turk D C. The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin 2007; 133: 581–624.
Derbyshire S W G, Fitzgerald M. The painful consequences of neonatal nociceptive input. Pain 2010; 150: 220–221.
Craig A D. How do you feel? Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Nat Rev Neurosci 2002; 3: 655–666.
Craig A D. A new view of pain as a homeostatic emotion. Trends in Neurosciences 2003; 26: 303–307.
Diatchenko L, Slade G D, Nackely A et al. Genetic basis for individual variations in pain perception and the development of a chronic pain condition. Hum Mol Genet 2005; 14: 135–143.
Valderas J M, Starfied B, Sibbald B, Salisbury C, Roland M. Defining comorbidity: implications for understanding health and health services. Ann Fam Med 2009; 7: 357–363.
Türp J C, Kowalski CJ, O'Leary N, Stohler C S. Pain maps from facial pain patients indicate a broad pain geography. J Dent Res 1998; 77: 1465–1472.
Wiesinger B, Malker H, Englund E, Wänman A. Back pain in relation to musculoskeletal disorders in the jaw-face: a matched case–control study. Pain 2007; 131: 311–319.
Slade D G, Diatchenko L, Bhalang K, Sigurdsson A, Fillingim R B, Belfer I, Max M B, Goldman D, Maixner W. Influence of psychological factors on risk of temporomandibular disorders. J Dent Res 2007; 86: 1120–1125.
Mercuri L. A heuristic approach to the management of muscle-related temporomandibular disorders. Faculty Dent J 2013; 4: 112–117.
Lobbezoo F, Naeije M. Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally. J Oral Rehabil 2001; 28: 1085–1091.
Luther F, Layton S, McDonald F. Orthodontics for treating temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; CD006541.
Luther F. Orthodontics and the temporomandibular joint: where are we now? Part 1. Orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular disorders. Angle Orthod 1998; 68: 295–304.
Luther F. Orthodontics and the temporomandibular joint: where are we now? Part 2. Functional occlusion, malocclusion, and TMD. Angle Orthod 1998; 68: 305–318.
Luther F. TMD and occlusion part I. Damned if we do? Occlusion: the interface of dentistry and orthodontics [Erratum appears in Br Dent J 2007; 202: 474]. Br Dent J 2007; 202: E2, discussion 38–39.
Luther F. TMD and occlusion part II. Damned if we don't? Functional occlusal problems: TMD epidemiology in a wider context. [Erratum appears in Br Dent J 2007; 202: 474). Br Dent J 2007; 202: E3, discussion 38–39.
Mohlin B, Axelsson S, Paulin G et al. TMD in relation to malocclusion and orthodontic treatment. A systematic review. Angle Orthod 2007; 77: 542–548.
Michelotti A, Iodice G. The role of orthodontics in temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Rehabil 2010; 37: 411–429.
Türp J C., Schindler H. The dental occlusion as a suspected cause for TMDs: epidemiological and etiological considerations. J Oral Rehabil 2012; 39: 502–512.
British Orthodontic Society Advice Sheet. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the orthodontic patient. 2012.
Durham J, Breckons M, Araujo-Soares V, Exley C, Steele J, Vale L. Developing effective and efficient care pathways in chronic pain: DEEP study protocol. BMC Oral Health 2014; 14: 6. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6831/14/6 (accessed 11-5-14).