Table 3: Gap-fill validation outcomes for six validation scenarios, where approximately 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of observed (un-filled) remote-sensed MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data were deleted in random spatial clusters to mimic observed patterns of missing observations and subsequently gap-filled.

From: High resolution temperature data for ecological research and management on the Southern Ocean Islands

Site Validation Scenario Day LST Data Night LST Data
    Mean no. support Min no. support slope (SE) Pseudo r2 t resid. df P Trend Mean no. support Min no. support slope (SE) Pseudo r2 t resid. df P Trend
Auckland 5% 1062.39 38 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −3.69 8137 <0.001 significant decline 1085.99 43 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −2.17 8498 0.030 significant decline
  10% 1019.33 23 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.77 15887 0.077 no relationship 1097.88 48 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.77 8425 0.443 no relationship
  20% 932.56 32 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −7.55 30889 <0.001 significant decline 945.38 39 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 3.10 31694 0.002 significant increase
  30% 850.26 33 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −9.27 44564 <0.001 significant decline 861.02 22 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.74 45739 0.082 no relationship
  40% 771.69 23 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −9.56 57089 <0.001 significant decline 682.10 26 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.28 75311 0.777 no relationship
  50% 705.25 24 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −10.85 68357 <0.001 significant decline 708.73 28 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.65 70837 0.099 no relationship
Campbell 5% 853.90 142 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.02 1558 0.308 no relationship 828.20 116 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.49 1551 0.626 no relationship
  10% 811.68 135 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −2.28 2980 0.022 significant decline 843.79 131 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.77 1549 0.439 no relationship
  20% 721.17 102 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.24 5699 0.813 no relationship 735.23 97 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.07 5842 0.285 no relationship
  30% 672.24 73 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 2.51 8191 0.012 significant increase 681.30 63 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.16 8466 0.246 no relationship
  40% 615.96 74 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.45 10439 0.653 no relationship 551.81 55 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.10 13791 0.922 no relationship
  50% 565.35 51 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.70 12530 0.088 no relationship 566.08 46 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.22 13086 0.829 no relationship
East Falkland 5% 1309.24 58 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −11.17 99238 <0.001 significant decline 1302.49 86 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −23.11 99669 <0.001 significant decline
  10% 1237.56 65 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −15.79 194581 <0.001 significant decline 1299.42 52 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 −26.15 99625 <0.001 significant decline
  20% 1122.95 46 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −23.09 373176 <0.001 significant decline 1126.17 66 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −47.09 373462 <0.001 significant decline
  30% 1018.40 48 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −31.56 536951 <0.001 significant decline 1018.11 41 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −56.00 537586 <0.001 significant decline
  40% 919.81 31 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −34.46 686792 <0.001 significant decline 799.38 23 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −70.56 877316 <0.001 significant decline
  50% 831.35 43 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −39.47 824820 <0.001 significant decline 832.05 38 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 −72.93 825895 <0.001 significant decline
Gough 5% 758.03 243 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.97 792 0.333 no relationship 754.03 148 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.34 816 0.182 no relationship
  10% 701.61 160 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.14 1560 0.256 no relationship 796.96 238 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.88 839 0.381 no relationship
  20% 643.53 180 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.07 2911 0.940 no relationship 683.41 195 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.25 3201 0.799 no relationship
  30% 588.20 132 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 2.01 4207 0.044 significant increase 630.55 131 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 5.43 4521 <0.001 significant increase
  40% 542.28 97 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 2.31 5509 0.021 significant increase 499.85 111 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 4.01 7486 <0.001 significant increase
  50% 500.60 123 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.04 6514 0.969 no relationship 522.58 116 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 3.34 6999 0.001 significant increase
Île aux Cochons 5% 775.43 286 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −2.05 828 0.041 significant decline 824.88 218 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 2.35 877 0.019 significant increase
  10% 770.28 187 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.45 1658 0.148 no relationship 866.72 273 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.70 899 0.482 no relationship
  20% 710.79 163 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.11 3224 0.266 no relationship 739.82 175 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.70 3372 0.090 no relationship
  30% 651.28 185 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.17 4590 0.243 no relationship 677.95 181 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 2.73 4790 0.006 significant increase
  40% 594.14 175 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.39 5831 0.164 no relationship 534.65 102 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 5.81 8023 <0.001 significant increase
  50% 538.11 129 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.01 7192 0.313 no relationship 561.23 146 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.10 7445 0.271 no relationship
Île de l'Est 5% 902.19 325 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.85 1699 0.065 no relationship 940.83 327 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.80 1812 0.073 no relationship
  10% 844.02 207 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.73 3317 0.084 no relationship 951.07 242 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.95 1773 0.342 no relationship
  20% 774.10 170 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −2.41 6368 0.016 significant decline 826.06 139 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.15 6684 0.877 no relationship
  30% 711.35 174 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.21 9061 0.226 no relationship 761.28 146 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.96 9738 0.335 no relationship
  40% 641.00 127 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.55 11733 0.579 no relationship 601.65 145 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.46 16020 0.642 no relationship
  50% 586.36 135 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.53 14177 0.597 no relationship 621.83 136 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −3.25 15029 0.001 significant decline
Île de la Possession 5% 960.01 232 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.75 1937 0.081 no relationship 1028.16 255 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 3.03 2093 0.002 significant increase
  10% 905.70 178 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.17 3824 0.243 no relationship 1012.58 287 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.92 2066 0.356 no relationship
  20% 834.05 163 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.58 7115 0.115 no relationship 898.10 203 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 9.31 7791 <0.001 significant increase
  30% 762.75 138 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −3.34 10439 0.001 significant decline 805.53 158 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 3.40 11128 0.001 significant increase
  40% 690.67 133 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.25 13188 0.800 no relationship 643.41 131 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 6.19 18272 <0.001 significant increase
  50% 627.49 111 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −3.36 15935 0.001 significant decline 667.35 100 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.67 17219 0.501 no relationship
Macquarie 5% 844.67 180 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −3.24 1828 0.001 significant decline 869.10 187 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 −4.74 1970 <0.001 significant decline
  10% 800.79 196 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 −4.82 3507 <0.001 significant decline 890.23 291 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −2.42 1930 0.015 significant decline
  20% 740.47 155 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 −7.83 6800 <0.001 significant decline 758.96 167 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 −7.28 7324 <0.001 significant decline
  30% 676.15 147 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −5.92 9776 <0.001 significant decline 701.65 150 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −7.35 10600 <0.001 significant decline
  40% 612.35 105 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −6.60 12693 <0.001 significant decline 556.37 108 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −9.47 17506 <0.001 significant decline
  50% 563.06 78 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 −11.90 14981 <0.001 significant decline 582.63 106 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −10.40 16213 <0.001 significant decline
Marion 5% 1016.95 187 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 2.37 3679 0.018 significant increase 1161.15 325 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.03 14.04 4143 <0.001 significant increase
  10% 968.83 208 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.81 7208 0.070 no relationship 1178.72 234 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.02 12.78 4131 <0.001 significant increase
  20% 879.30 165 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 2.35 13740 0.019 significant increase 997.31 193 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.03 26.80 15608 <0.001 significant increase
  30% 801.93 108 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 4.66 19915 <0.001 significant increase 898.33 196 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.03 30.55 22483 <0.001 significant increase
  40% 733.65 144 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 2.98 25180 0.003 significant increase 710.57 126 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.03 38.24 36632 <0.001 significant increase
  50% 662.70 115 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 5.61 30506 <0.001 significant increase 739.27 96 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.02 33.00 34460 <0.001 significant increase
New Amsterdam 5% 705.24 334 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 1.83 539 0.069 no relationship 704.86 231 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.04 6.27 591 <0.001 significant increase
  10% 687.57 252 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.17 1129 0.866 no relationship 763.03 330 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.02 3.41 608 0.001 significant increase
  20% 611.16 212 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.99 2083 0.322 no relationship 635.89 198 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 5.23 2224 <0.001 significant increase
  30% 576.24 191 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.36 3008 0.174 no relationship 592.41 179 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.03 10.53 3221 <0.001 significant increase
  40% 524.93 148 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.02 3933 0.985 no relationship 474.80 157 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 10.40 5336 <0.001 significant increase
  50% 481.16 156 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.31 4756 0.189 no relationship 490.16 133 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.02 10.40 4964 <0.001 significant increase
Prince Edward 5% 580.48 217 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 −1.55 534 0.121 no relationship 665.86 250 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.91 545 0.361 no relationship
  10% 607.98 182 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.21 1066 0.226 no relationship 642.32 158 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.02 578 0.988 no relationship
  20% 539.43 138 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.61 2076 0.108 no relationship 562.78 159 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.89 2184 0.372 no relationship
  30% 498.93 125 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.53 3004 0.126 no relationship 520.24 115 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.23 3055 0.218 no relationship
  40% 460.07 115 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −0.08 3758 0.934 no relationship 415.25 76 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.15 5210 0.885 no relationship
  50% 410.29 98 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 1.10 4704 0.271 no relationship 428.43 110 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.41 4937 0.160 no relationship
Tristan 5% 891.61 323 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.01 3.37 1054 0.001 significant increase 904.25 359 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.14 16.54 1044 <0.001 significant increase
  10% 875.35 240 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.02 6.68 2065 <0.001 significant increase 934.57 365 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.07 10.55 1082 <0.001 significant increase
  20% 798.28 219 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.02 9.30 3954 <0.001 significant increase 795.96 239 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.09 22.41 3936 <0.001 significant increase
  30% 713.85 191 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.02 13.33 5600 <0.001 significant increase 725.15 178 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.08 29.22 5748 <0.001 significant increase
  40% 644.14 143 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.03 15.41 7256 <0.001 significant increase 569.73 117 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.08 33.95 9410 <0.001 significant increase
  50% 589.86 151 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.02 15.13 8652 <0.001 significant increase 594.82 120 <0.01 (<0.01) 0.09 35.53 8870 <0.001 significant increase
West Falkland 5% 1269.24 92 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.15 68817 0.880 no relationship 1266.88 25 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −7.31 69117 <0.001 significant decline
  10% 1208.43 69 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 0.77 135157 0.440 no relationship 1270.20 67 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −12.14 69508 <0.001 significant decline
  20% 1092.33 29 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −1.10 259057 0.273 no relationship 1095.28 32 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −19.26 260415 <0.001 significant decline
  30% 990.85 32 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −5.12 372686 <0.001 significant decline 993.31 24 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −21.75 373997 <0.001 significant decline
  40% 894.70 20 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −3.71 477632 <0.001 significant decline 778.86 18 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −28.85 611262 <0.001 significant decline
  50% 809.08 23 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −9.26 572741 <0.001 significant decline 812.19 28 <0.01 (<0.01) <0.01 −30.00 574233 <0.001 significant decline
  1. Quantile regressions, for the median (0.5) quantile, were used to test the relationships between day and night gap−fill prediction errors (absolute difference between observed and predicted temperatures) and support (the number of spatially and temporally neighboring observations, used to estimate the missing value). The mean and minimum number of support cells with observed LST data used to calculate gap-fill predictions for each validation scenario are reported.