The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 4. Psychosocial and financial issues of the Swedish annual level-of-living survey in SCI subjects and controls

Abstract

In a series of articles from the Stockholm Spinal Cord Injury Study (SSCIS), the health status of a near-total regional SCI population comprising 353 subjects has been investigated. The present study describes the psycho-social and financial consequences of SCI in this group. It is based on a level-of-living survey that has been used annually on 8000-14 000 Swedes since 1974. The health-focused version of this survey was used for data collection in the subset of 326 subjects in the SSCIS that were residents of the Greater Stockholm area. The normative material consisted of 1978 interviews of residents of the same area, provided by the Swedish Bureau of Statistics. The results show that SCI subjects, although provided with basic material commodities up to par with the general population, have less financial reserves and more frequently express worry about their finances. Less than half of the subjects are gainfully employed, when part-time jobs are also included. Social activities are more restricted, and more centered on the core social network. Several items in the survey point to a preoccupation with personal rather than public matters.

We feel that these factors, at least to some degree, are consequential to separation from the workplace, with resulting disadvantageous financial and social effects. Intensified vocational rehabilitation efforts might thus be justified from both an economic and a psycho-social point of view.

References

  1. 1

    Trieschmann R B . Spinal Cord Injuries. Psychological, Social, and Vocational Rehabilitation. Demos Publication, New York, 1988.

  2. 2

    Whiteneck G G, Charlifue S W, Gerhart K A, Lammertse D P, Manley S, Menter R R, Seedroff K R, (eds). Aging with Spinal Cord Injury. Demos Publication, New York, 1993.

  3. 3

    Berkowitz M, Harvey C, Greene C G, Wilson S E . The Economic Consequences of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. Demos Publication, New York, 1992.

  4. 4

    Stover S L, De Lisa J A, Whiteneck G G, (eds). Spinal Cord Injury. Clinical Outcomes from the Model Systems. Aspen Publication, Gaithersburg, 1995.

  5. 5

    Levi R, Hultling C, Nash M, Seiger Å . The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 1. Medical problems in a regional SCI population. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 308–315.

  6. 6

    Nakajima A, Honda S, Yoshimura S, Ono Y, Kawamura J, Moriai N . The disease pattern and causes of death of spinal cord injured patients in Japan. Paraplegia 1989; 27: 163–171.

  7. 7

    De Vivo M J, Kartus P L, Rutt R D, Stover S L, Fine P R . The influence of age at time of spinal cord injury on rehabilitation outcome. Arch Neurol 1990; 47: 687–691.

  8. 8

    De Vivo M J, Black K J, Stover S L . Causes of death during the first 12 years after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 248–254.

  9. 9

    Levi R, Hultling C, Seiger Å . The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 2 Associations between clinical patient descriptors and post-acute medical problems. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 585–594.

  10. 10

    Levi R, Hultling C, Seiger Å . The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 3 Health-related issues of the Swedish annual level-of-living survey in SCI subjects and controls. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 726–730.

  11. 11

    Thorslund M, Wärneryd B . Testing/assessing question quality. Some Swedish experiences. Journal of Official Statistics 1985; Vol 1, No 2, p 159–178.

  12. 12

    Thorslund M . Wärneryd B. Methodological research in the Swedish surveys of living conditions. Problems of measurement and data collection. Social Indicators Research 1985; 16: 77–95.

  13. 13

    Wikman A . Wärneryd B. Measurement errors in survey questions: explaining response variability. Social Indicators Research 1990; 22: 199–212.

  14. 14

    Lindström H . Non-response errors in sample surveys. Statistics Sweden, 1983.

  15. 15

    The living conditions of the social assistance clients. Report No 52, Living Conditions, Statistics Sweden, 1987.

  16. 16

    The annual level-of-living survey, Statistics, Sweden, 1990.

  17. 17

    Fleiss J L . Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions, 2nd ed, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981.

  18. 18

    Hosmer D W, Lemeshow S . Applied Logistic Regression. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989.

  19. 19

    Statistics Sweden 1990-1994.

  20. 20

    Dijkers M P, Abela M B, Gans B M, Gordon W A . The Aftermath of Spinal Cord Injury. pp. 185-212 In: Stover SL, DeLisa JA, Whiteneck GG, (eds). Spinal cord injury. Clinical outcomes from the model systems. Aspen Publication, Gaithersburg, 1995.

  21. 21

    Berkowitz M, Harvey C, Greene C G, Wilson S E . The Economic Consequences of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. Chapter 7: pp. 121-138, Chapter 10: pp. 175-190. Demos Publication: New York, 1992.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to R Levi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Levi, R., Hultling, C. & Seiger, Å. The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 4. Psychosocial and financial issues of the Swedish annual level-of-living survey in SCI subjects and controls. Spinal Cord 34, 152–157 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1038/sc.1996.27

Download citation

Keywords

  • spinal cord injury
  • epidemiology
  • outcome
  • complications

Further reading