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Sex-specific nanomedicine- and biomaterials-based therapies of chronic wounds

Wound healing mechanisms differ depending on the sex, particularly in chronic wounds. Therefore, sex should be considered in the design of nanomedicine- and biomaterials-based wound healing therapies, both in preclinical and clinical testing.

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Fig. 1: Nanomedicine and biomaterials design for wound healing should consider sex.


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L.G. and M.M. gratefully acknowledge financial support from the US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (grant DK131417). I.P. acknowledges support from the US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (grant R01DK136241). D.R.N. gratefully acknowledges the support of the Australian Research Council for a Future Fellowship (FT230100220).

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Correspondence to Morteza Mahmoudi.

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M.M. discloses that he is a co-founder of Academic Parity Movement and Targets’ Tip; he receives royalties/honoraria for his published books, plenary lectures and licensed patents. D.R.N. discloses that he is the co-founder and CEO of NanoStratus Pty. Ltd. He receives honoraria for his editorial responsibilities, plenary lectures and licensed patents. The remaining authors declare no competing interests.

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Mahmoudi, N., Nisbet, D.R., Pastar, I. et al. Sex-specific nanomedicine- and biomaterials-based therapies of chronic wounds. Nat Rev Bioeng 2, 447–449 (2024).

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