Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The challenges of bringing cultured meat to the market

Animal cells can be cultured in vitro to fabricate meat-like, edible products with the aim to provide a sustainable source of animal protein while improving animal welfare and reducing the environmental impact of meat production. CellX is a China-based startup company that aims to commercialize cultured meat in China.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: CellX cultured meat products.


  1. Xiang, N. et al. 3D porous scaffolds from wheat glutenin for cultured meat applications. Biomaterials 285, 121543 (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Xiang, N. et al. Edible films for cultivated meat production. Biomaterials 287, 121659 (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Wei, Z. et al. Soy protein amyloid fibril scaffold for cultivated meat application. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 15, 15108–15119 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Garrison, G. L., Biermacher, J. T. & Brorsen, B. W. How much will large-scale production of cell-cultured meat cost? J. Agric. Food Res. 10, 100358 (2022).

    Google Scholar 

  5. Hubalek, S., Post, M. J. & Moutsatsou, P. Towards resource-efficient and cost-efficient cultured meat. Curr. Opin.Food Sci. 47, 100885 (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Pasitka, L. et al. Spontaneous immortalization of chicken fibroblasts generates stable, high-yield cell lines for serum-free production of cultured meat. Nat. Food 4, 35–50 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Humbird, D. Scale‐up economics for cultured meat. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 118, 3239–3250 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Malerich, M. & Bryant, C. Nomenclature of cell-cultivated meat & seafood products. NPJ Sci. Food 6, 56 (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Human Food Made with Cultured Animal Cells. (2022).

  10. Ong, K. J. et al. Food safety considerations and research priorities for the cultured meat and seafood industry. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 20, 5421–5448 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors thank the team of scientists at CellX for supporting the project.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ning Xiang.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

N.X. cofounded Shanghai Shiwei Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (CellX), a company that produces cultured meat. X.Z. has funding resources from CellX and Good Food Institute (GFI), which support research projects on cultured meat.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xiang, N., Zhang, X. The challenges of bringing cultured meat to the market. Nat Rev Bioeng (2023).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing