Micro- and nanorobots hold great potential to overcome brain barriers for the treatment of brain diseases. They can be delivered to the brain by local injection, intranasal application, or systemic administration. Combining active propulsion with biological and chemical approaches or external physical stimuli can improve brain targeting.
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This work was supported by National Science Foundation grant 1931214. We thank H. Han, J. Seong and J. Joo for the valuable inputs.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Yoo, J., Tang, S. & Gao, W. Micro- and nanorobots for biomedical applications in the brain. Nat Rev Bioeng 1, 308–310 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s44222-023-00038-4