Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Flood protection

Controlling floods in megacities with no regrets

Strategies for mitigating climate change driven floods in Shanghai apply regret theory to guide the best choice from alternate engineered flood control scenarios.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. van der Pol, T. D., Gabbert, S., Weikard, H.-P., van Ierland, E. C. & Hendrix, E. M. T. Environ. Res. Econ 68, 1087–1109 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Dilling, L., Daly, M. E., Travis, W. R., Wilhelmi, O. V. & Klein, R. A. WIREs Clim. Change 6, 413–425 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Carabini, L. J. Libertarian Studies 21, 151–155 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Tian, Z. et. al. Nat. Water (2023).

  5. Wang, C., Zhang, R. & Zhang, S. River Res. Applic. 1, 1–12 (2021).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Stevens, M. R., Song, Y. & Berke, P. R. Nat. Hazards 53, 605–629 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to David King.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

King, D. Controlling floods in megacities with no regrets. Nat Water 1, 136–137 (2023).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing