Asthma is an allergic airway disease in which type 2-mediated inflammation has a pathogenic role. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are type 1-dominant inflammatory diseases in which type 2 cytokines often have a protective role. However, clinical studies demonstrate that allergic asthma and associated allergies are essential risk factors for CVD, including coronary heart diseases, aortic diseases, peripheral arterial diseases, pulmonary embolism, right ventricular dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, cardiac hypertrophy and even hypertension. Mast cells, eosinophils, inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin (Ig)E accumulate in asthmatic lungs and in the injured heart and vasculature of patients with CVD. Clinical studies show that many anti-asthmatic therapies affect the risk of CVD. As such, allergic asthma and CVD may share common pathogenic mechanisms. Preclinical investigations indicate that anti-asthmatic drugs have therapeutic potential in certain CVDs. In this Review, we discuss how asthma and allied allergic conditions may contribute to the prevalence, incidence and progression of CVD and vice versa.
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The studies were supported by the Hainan Province Science and Technology special fund (ZDYF2020214 to J.G.), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81770487, 91939107 and 82170440 to J.G.), the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of Hainan Medical University (JBGS202104 to J.G.), the Key Laboratory of Emergency and Trauma (Hainan Medical University) of the Ministry of Education (KLET-201917 to J.G. and KLET-202019 to Y.Z.), the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HL151627 and HL157073 to G.-P.S.; HL34636 and HL80472 to P.L.) and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (AG063839 to G.-P.S.).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Guo, J., Zhang, Y., Liu, T. et al. Allergic asthma is a risk factor for human cardiovascular diseases. Nat Cardiovasc Res 1, 417–430 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s44161-022-00067-z
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