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Computational challenges for multimodal astrophysics


In the coming decades, we will face major computational challenges, when the improved sensitivity of third-generation gravitational wave detectors will be such that they will be able to detect a high number (of the order of 7 × 104 per year) of multi-messenger events from binary neutron star mergers, similar to GW 170817. In this Perspective, we discuss the application of multimodal artificial intelligence techniques for multi-messenger astrophysics, fusing the information from different signal emissions.

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Fig. 1: Detector timeline, running or planned (on available funds) for the next decade.
Fig. 2: Simple MML analysis workflow.
Fig. 3: The astrophysical event’s conceptual MML workflow.


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We acknowledge support from COST Action CA17137, supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology), and from the ESCAPE project with grant number GA:824064.

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E.C. coordinated the work. B.P., A.I. and F.M. contributed to the writing of all the sections of the paper.

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Correspondence to Elena Cuoco.

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Nature Computational Science thanks Michael Coughlin, Eliu Huerta and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Primary Handling Editor: Jie Pan, in collaboration with the Nature Computational Science team.

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Cuoco, E., Patricelli, B., Iess, A. et al. Computational challenges for multimodal astrophysics. Nat Comput Sci 2, 479–485 (2022).

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