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Considerations for the design and implementation of point-of-care technology for use in low- and middle-income countries

Designing technology for point-of-care use in low- and middle-income countries requires understanding of the underlying barriers that contribute to recalcitrant global problems. The only way to understand those barriers is to work with local experts, otherwise you may wind up solving the wrong problem.

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Fig. 1: Falsified amoxicillin dosage forms detected by the PAD.


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Paper analytical device (PAD) development was supported by NSF CMMI-1842369, IRES-1559496 and IIP-2016516; the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number U01CA269195; the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, funded in part by Grant Number UL1TR002529 from the National Institutes of Health; National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; and the University of Illinois Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science award UL1TR002003. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. PAD field testing was supported by the Walther Cancer Foundation WCF 0178.01, the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Project entitled ‘Developing, validating and adopting simple mobile technologies in drug quality evaluation and counterfeit detection’ for PAD system implementation in Ethiopia, and by USAID DIV program AID-OAA-F-15-00050, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Management Science for Health, FHI-360, and the Berthiaume Institute for Precision Health Substance Abuse Fund.

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Correspondence to Marya Lieberman.

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M.L. is an inventor of the PAD (US 9,354,181 B2 issued 31 May 2016) and is the owner of Paper Analytics LLC. K.L.H. declares no competing interests.

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Hayes, K.L., Lieberman, M. Considerations for the design and implementation of point-of-care technology for use in low- and middle-income countries. Nat Rev Methods Primers 3, 8 (2023).

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