Radiocarbon dating uses the decay of a radioactive isotope of carbon (14C) to measure time and date objects containing carbon-bearing material. With a half-life of 5,700 ± 30 years, detection of 14C is a useful tool for determining the age of a specimen formed over the past 55,000 years. In this Primer, we outline key advances in 14C measurement and instrument capacity, as well as optimal sample selection and preparation. We discuss data processing, carbon reservoir age correction, calibration and statistical analyses. We then outline examples of radiocarbon dating across a range of applications, from anthropology and palaeoclimatology to forensics and medical science. Reproducibility and minimum reporting standards are discussed along with potential issues related to accuracy and sensitivity. Finally, we look forwards to the adoption of radiocarbon dating in various fields of research thanks to continued instrument improvement.
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The authors apologize to the authors of numerous papers that could not be cited owing to limited space. The authors acknowledge monumental contributions of generations of radiocarbon (14C) researchers and researchers using 14C in this flourishing and exciting field. Comments from reviewers and discussions with numerous colleagues in the field were most helpful, much appreciated and improved this publication. I.H. acknowledges support for her research by the Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich. Thanks to laboratory technical support for their dedicated work. Numerous researchers from various disciplines and countries are thanked for fruitful collaborations. P.A. and M.H.G. acknowledge the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NE/S011854/1; NEIF) and the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) for funding and support. They express their gratitude to colleagues at the SUERC for stimulating discussion and ideas, providing dedicated technical support and fruitful academic collaborations. S.J.F. acknowledges support from the Research School of Earth Sciences and the Australian National University (ANU), and R. Wood and R. Esmay for their dedication to and support of the ANU Radiocarbon Laboratory. C.L.P. acknowledges support from the Malcolm H. Wiener Foundation, University of Arizona and members of the IntCal Working Group. K.L.S. acknowledges support of her research from the Swedish Research Council (542-2013-8358), Strategic Research Program for Diabetes at Karolinska Institutet (C5471152), Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF12OC1016064, NNF20OC0063944), Vallee Foundation Vallee Scholar Award (C5471234) and Karolinska Institutet/AstraZeneca Integrated Cardiometabolic Centre (H725701603). G.Q. expresses gratitude to colleagues of the Centre of Applied Physics, Dating and Diagnostics at University of Salento for their friendship, continued support, and restless and dedicated work. H.Y. and M.Y. thank the Laboratory of Radiocarbon Dating team at the University Museum of The University of Tokyo for their relentless effort to improve the precision and accuracy of radiocarbon dating together with field archaeologists and researchers in Japan and the world. I.H. and G.Q. acknowledge the inspiration and stimulating discussions with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) staff and colleagues within the Coordinated Research Projects: Enhancing Nuclear Analytical Techniques to Meet the Needs of Forensic Sciences.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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- Global carbon cycle
Exchanges of carbon between carbon reservoirs, including the atmosphere, biosphere, oceans and sedimentary deposits.
- Radiocarbon calibration curves
Experimental reconstructions of past atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) recorded in tree rings and other independently dated samples such as speleothems, marine corals and laminated sediments.
- Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis
(CSRA). Radiocarbon analysis of individual organic compounds (biomarkers) such as lipids, fatty acids, proteins and waxes of a specific molecular size after chromatographic separation.
An atom of different elements or molecules with the same atomic mass as another.
Natural records of information about the past environment, such as sediments, soils, peat bogs, cave deposits, corals and tree rings.
- Reservoir effect
An apparent age of material due to mixed carbon sources when old carbon is added to atmospheric CO2.
A secondary mineral deposit such as calcite, aragonite or gypsum formed in caves by flowing or dripping water.
- Isotope fractionation
The enrichment of one isotope relative to another owing to chemical reactions or physical processes.
- Constant mass contamination correction
The mass and radiocarbon (14C) signature of contamination as evaluated for a specific preparation process to correct for exogenous carbon introduced to samples containing tens of micrograms of carbon.
- Marine radiocarbon reservoir effect
(MRE). An offset in radiocarbon (14C) age between contemporaneous organisms from the terrestrial environment and organisms that derive their carbon from the marine environment.
- Freshwater radiocarbon reservoir effect
(FRE). Anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers due to water rich in dissolved radiocarbon (14C)-free calcium carbonates.
- Dead carbon fraction
The amount of radioactively dead carbon that reduces the radiocarbon (14C) content in speleothems.
A combination of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in a sample after deposition.
A silica structure formed in plant tissues by the uptake and storage of silica from soil, which occludes and preserves organic carbon.
- Proxy data
Data gathered from natural archives of climate variability, such as tree rings, ice cores, fossil pollen, ocean sediments, coral and historical data.
- Solar energetic particle
A high-energy particle such as protons, electrons and high-energy nuclei coming from the Sun.
The exchange of photosynthesized carbon for mineral nutrients obtained by symbiotic fungi.
Describes an organism that feeds on non-living organic matter and has the ability to decompose.
The amount of time since a water molecule last interacted with the atmosphere.
- Curve of knowns
The first radiocarbon ages of well-dated historic items and wood published in 1949 by Arnold and Libby, proving the principle of the method.
- Vinci and Stradivarius age plateaus
The time periods 1450–1650 Common Era (CE) and 1700–1950 CE marked by a flattening of the calibration curve where calibrated ages result in multiple intervals.
- Bayesian wiggle-matching
The calibration of a sequence of radiocarbon ages with a known time gap between them, such as the number of tree rings.
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Hajdas, I., Ascough, P., Garnett, M.H. et al. Radiocarbon dating. Nat Rev Methods Primers 1, 62 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43586-021-00058-7
Nature Reviews Methods Primers (2022)
Optimization of the direct LSC method for determination of biogenic component in liquids by applying 14C
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry (2022)