a Annual total D versus net front position change for the 128 glaciers with continuous measurements between 1985 and 2018, with the color scale and label corresponding to the measurement year. The black line is the least-squares best fit with a slope of 14 Gt yr−1 per km of retreat and intercept of 312 Gt yr−1. Negative front change indicates net retreat from the glacier fronts’ initial position over the calendar year. Note the reversed x-axis to highlight the inverse relationship. b Annual changes in D and front position with labels indicating the first year (e.g., ‘00 is the change from 1999 to 2000). The (black line) least-squares fit has a slope of 14 Gt yr−1 per km of annual retreat and intercept of −0.7 Gt yr−1.