Fig. 4: A metachronal wave in a graded axle width membrane. | Communications Materials

Fig. 4: A metachronal wave in a graded axle width membrane.

From: Metachronal waves in magnetic micro-robotic paddles for artificial cilia

Fig. 4

Microscopy time-sequence images showing actuation of a cell containing paddles on axles of width w = 12, 9, 6 and 3 μm during a forward and b reverse cycles under a 15 Hz, 1.9 kA/m field. Boxes highlight the movement phase for each paddle. c Time-plot of individual paddle rotations and applied field for the cycle shown in a and b. d Quantification of the phase differences between paddles on the same cell, measured as the delay in time between when the paddle on the 12-μm-wide axle reaches 90° rotation (during rotation to 0°) and when every other paddle reaches 90°.

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