Fig. 2: Microscopy time-series and rotation measurements of membrane cells. | Communications Materials

Fig. 2: Microscopy time-series and rotation measurements of membrane cells.

From: Metachronal waves in magnetic micro-robotic paddles for artificial cilia

Fig. 2

Sequence of images taken at the times indicated, showing ae the forward and fj the reverse rotation of four paddles (p1–p4) on identical 3-µm-wide axles during the application of a 15 Hz, 17.3 kA/m sinusoidal field. k Time-plot of individual paddle rotations and applied field for the cycle shown in aj. l Effect of axle width and field amplitude on the maximum paddle rotation (15 Hz field). Data points are the average of three paddles in separate cells, error bars show standard deviation.

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