a, Plasma IGF-1 levels in anti-PD-1–PD-L1-treated patients with NSCLC with NDB (n = 27) or DCB (n = 13). b, Immunohistochemical quantification (H-score) of IGF-1R in tumors from patients with NSCLC with NDB (n = 6) or DCB (n = 7) after anti-PD-1–PD-L1 treatment. Data are expressed as means ± s.e.m. P values were calculated by two-sided Welch’s t-test. c, Representative images for IGF-1R immunostaining in four lung cancer specimens (two adenocarcinomas (AC) and two squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)). Scale bars, 50 μm. Numerical source data are provided as a source data file.