a, Effects of STS, anti-PD-1 and STS + anti-PD-1 on IGF-1 serum levels in LLC tumor-bearing mice (n = 6 mice per group). b, Left: tumor growth of LLC cells in mice treated with anti-PD-1 (days 7, 11 and 15), STS (days 6–8, 10–12 and 14–15) and 5 µg of rIGF-1 (one dose at days 6, 10 and 14, and two doses at days 7, 8, 11, 12 and 15; n = 6 mice per group). Right: tumor volumes in these mice at day 25 (n = 6 mice per group). c, Igf1r mRNA expression in LLC cells transduced with two lentiviral shRNAs targeting Igf1r mRNA sequences (shIGF-1R-1 and shIGF-1R-2) or with an empty vector (control). Gapdh was used as the reference gene. Data are expressed as the means of three technical replicates from a single experiment. d, Subcutaneous growth of the transduced LLC cells treated with anti-PD-1 (days 7, 10 and 14) or vehicle (control). In this experiment, n = 8 mice were used per group, except for the empty vector + control (n = 7), empty vecto + ranti-PD-1 (n = 6) and shIGF-1R-2 + control groups (n = 7). The follow-up of tumor size and the tumor volumes at the end of each experiment are shown. In a, b and d, data are expressed as means ± s.e.m., and differences between experimental groups were analyzed by two-sided Kruskal–Wallis test with post hoc Mann–Whitney U-test. Numerical source data are provided as a source data file.