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Economic quantification of Loss and Damage funding needs

A loss and damage (L&D) fund has been established to support particularly vulnerable developing countries. L&D funding needs, entitlements and necessary contributions can be quantified using climate economics coupled with historical responsibility principles; for the year 2025, total L&D funding needs are estimated to be US $395 [128–937] billion.

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Fig. 1: Economic impacts of climate change and contributions to L&D funding for the year 2025.


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P.A. and M.C. acknowledge support from European Union’s Horizon Europe research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 101056873 (ELEVATE). M.T. acknowledges funding from the European Union ERC Grant project No 101044703 (EUNICE). R.M. and T.D. acknowledge support from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance.

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M.T. conceived the article. M.T. and P.A. developed the model for quantifying L&D. All authors reviewed the literature and wrote the paper.

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Correspondence to Massimo Tavoni.

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Nature Reviews Earth & Environment thanks Melanie Pill, Zoha Shawoo, Joyce Kimutai, and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Tavoni, M., Andreoni, P., Calcaterra, M. et al. Economic quantification of Loss and Damage funding needs. Nat Rev Earth Environ 5, 411–413 (2024).

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