Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Year in Review
  • Published:

Climate chronicles

Global carbon emissions in 2023

Global CO2 emissions for 2023 increased by only 0.1% relative to 2022 (following increases of 5.4% and 1.9% in 2021 and 2022, respectively), reaching 35.8 Gt CO2. These 2023 emissions consumed 10–66.7% of the remaining carbon budget to limit warming to 1.5°C, suggesting permissible emissions could be depleted within 0.5–6 years (67% likelihood).

Key points

  • Data from the Carbon Monitor indicate 35.8 Gt CO2 were emitted globally in 2023.

  • Although the trend is upwards, the pace of growth has been slowing, suggesting global emissions might have plateaued.

  • India overtook the EU as the third highest emitter globally.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Global CO2 emissions 1970–2023.


  1. Liu, Z. et al. Global patterns of daily CO2 emissions reductions in the first year of COVID-19. Nat. Geosci. 15, 615–620 (2022).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Liu, Z., Deng, Z., Davis, S. J., Giron, C. & Ciais, P. Monitoring global carbon emissions in 2021. Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. 3, 217–219 (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Liu, Z., Deng, Z., Davis, S. & Ciais, P. Monitoring global carbon emissions in 2022. Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. 4, 205–206 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Friedlingstein, P. et al. Global Carbon Budget 2023. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 15, 5301–5369 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. IEA. World Energy Outlook 2023 (IEA, 2023);

  6. IPCC. Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2021).

  7. Lamboll, R. D. et al. Assessing the size and uncertainty of remaining carbon budgets. Nat. Clim. Change. 13, 1360–1367 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Crippa, M. et al. Fossil CO2 and GHG Emissions of All World Countries - 2020 report. (Publications Office of the European Union, 2020).

  9. Zhu, B. et al. CarbonMonitor-Power near-real-time monitoring of global power generation on hourly to daily scales. Sci. Data 10, 217 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ke, P. et al. Carbon Monitor Europe near-real-time daily CO2 emissions for 27 EU countries and the United Kingdom. Sci. Data 10, 374 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhu Liu.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, Z., Deng, Z., Davis, S.J. et al. Global carbon emissions in 2023. Nat Rev Earth Environ 5, 253–254 (2024).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing