Fig. 3: Formation mechanisms and environments for polymetallic nodules. | Nature Reviews Earth & Environment

Fig. 3: Formation mechanisms and environments for polymetallic nodules.

From: Deep-ocean polymetallic nodules as a resource for critical materials

Fig. 3

a | Schematic showing the formation of δ-MnO2 and ferrihydrite (bottom) and phyllomanganates (top), which precipitate around a nucleus to form hydrogenetic and diagenetic nodule layers, respectively. In addition to those shown here, many other anions and neutral complexes sorb onto the ferrihydrite and cations sorb onto the δ-MnO2 and other phyllomanganates. b | Schematic showing the formation of hydrogenetic, mixed-type and diagenetic nodules, with variations in chemistry shown. Figure adapted with permission from refs36,128, Mineralogical Society of America.

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