Short-duration (1–3 h) rainfall extremes can cause serious damage to societies through rapidly developing (flash) flooding and are determined by complex, multifaceted processes that are altering as Earth’s climate warms. In this Review, we examine evidence from observational, theoretical and modelling studies for the intensification of these rainfall extremes, the drivers and the impact on flash flooding. Both short-duration and long-duration (>1 day) rainfall extremes are intensifying with warming at a rate consistent with the increase in atmospheric moisture (~7% K−1), while in some regions, increases in short-duration extreme rainfall intensities are stronger than expected from moisture increases alone. These stronger local increases are related to feedbacks in convective clouds, but their exact role is uncertain because of the very small scales involved. Future extreme rainfall intensification is also modulated by changes to temperature stratification and large-scale atmospheric circulation. The latter remains a major source of uncertainty. Intensification of short-duration extremes has likely increased the incidence of flash flooding at local scales, and this can further compound with an increase in storm spatial footprint to considerably increase total event rainfall. These findings call for urgent climate change adaptation measures to manage increasing flood risks.
Heavy rainfall extremes are intensifying with warming at a rate generally consistent with the increase in atmospheric moisture, for accumulation periods from hours to days.
In some regions, high-resolution modelling, observed trends and observed temperature dependencies indicate stronger increases in short-duration, sub-daily, extreme rainfall intensities, up to twice what would be expected from atmospheric moisture increases alone.
Stronger local increases in short-duration extreme rainfall intensities are related to convective cloud feedbacks, but their relevance to climate change is uncertain, owing to modulation by changes to temperature stratification and large-scale atmospheric circulation.
It is unclear whether storm size will increase or decrease with warming; however, increases in rainfall intensity and the spatial footprint of a storm can compound to substantially increase the total rainfall during an event.
Evidence is emerging that sub-daily rainfall intensification is related to an intensification of flash flooding, at least locally. This intensification will have serious implications for flash flooding globally and requires urgent climate change adaptation measures.
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H.J.F., G.L., R.B., S.B., S.G. and E.L. have been supported by the European Research Council (INTENSE; grant no. ERC-2013-CoG-617329). H.J.F. and S.B. are also supported by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (FUTURE-STORMS, NE/R01079X/1). H.J.F. is funded by the Wolfson Foundation and the Royal Society through a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award (grant no. WM140025). The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the US National Science Foundation. E.J.K. is supported by the Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme funded by the UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy and the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (grant no. GA01101). R.P.A. acknowledges the ERA4CS INDECIS project funded by the European Union (grant no. 690462). J.O.H. gratefully acknowledges funding from the Villum Foundation (grant no. 13168), the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme (grant no. 771859) and the Novo Nordisk Foundation Interdisciplinary Synergy Program (grant no. NNF19OC0057374). G.V. acknowledges funding from the US Army Corps of Engineers’ Institute for Water Resources (IWR).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Fowler, H.J., Lenderink, G., Prein, A.F. et al. Anthropogenic intensification of short-duration rainfall extremes. Nat Rev Earth Environ 2, 107–122 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-020-00128-6
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