Sea-level rise and human migration


Anthropogenic sea-level rise (SLR) is predicted to impact, and, in many cases, displace, a large proportion of the population via inundation and heightened SLR-related hazards. With the global coastal population projected to surpass one billion people this century, SLR might be among the most costly and permanent future consequences of climate change. In this Review, we synthesize the rapidly expanding knowledge of human mobility and migration responses to SLR, providing a coherent roadmap for future SLR research and associated policy. While it is often assumed that direct inundation forces a migration, we discuss how mobility responses are instead driven by a diversity of socioeconomic and demographic factors, which, in some cases, do not result in a migration response. We link SLR hazards with potential mechanisms of migration and the associated governmental or institutional policies that operate as obstacles or facilitators for that migration. Specific examples from the USA, Bangladesh and atoll island nations are used to contextualize these concepts. However, further research is needed on the fundamental mechanisms underlying SLR migration, tipping points, thresholds and feedbacks, risk perception and migration to fully understand migration responses to SLR.

Key points

  • A large proportion of the global population presently reside in coastal regions where sea-level rise (SLR) impacts are expected and, in many cases, may influence the migration of millions of people.

  • Migration from SLR is multifaceted, influenced by environmental hazards and political, demographic, economic and social factors embedded within policy incentives to encourage or obstruct migration — not just SLR itself.

  • Evidence suggests that there are strong economic, social and cultural reasons for households to resist migrating away from areas exposed to SLR until migration is the only remaining option.

  • Estimating the number of migrants is difficult because future exposure to SLR is dependent on choices about carbon emissions today, as well as the coastal-adaptation choices we make over time.

  • Policies addressing SLR migration via protection and accommodation are well developed but policies addressing relocation are still too abstract and lack guidance on ensuring equity.

  • Future research on thresholds related to SLR migration and the interplay between physical and social processes will be critical for informing climate-migration policies.

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Fig. 1: Migration outcomes under conditions of SLR.
Fig. 2: Responses to SLR hazards.
Fig. 3: At-risk populations in the LECZ.


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This work was supported by the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) under funding received from the National Science Foundation DBI-1639145 and based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number 1600131.

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M.E.H., E.F., M.B. and V.M. substantially contributed to the discussion of content and wrote and edited the paper. M.C., K.A., R.M. and D.W. substantially contributed to the discussion of content and edited the paper.

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Hauer, M.E., Fussell, E., Mueller, V. et al. Sea-level rise and human migration. Nat Rev Earth Environ 1, 28–39 (2020).

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