a | Population projections in the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) for 2060 (ref.11); countries with at least 5 million people in the 100-year floodplain but lacking considerable sea-level rise (SLR) and migration research are highlighted with a yellow border. b | Projected populations at risk from SLR in the USA under an SLR scenario of 1.8 m by 2100 (ref.10). c | Projected migrants in coastal Bangladesh due to SLR-induced salinization59. d–h | Populations in atoll island nations in 2060 (ref.11). Grey shading indicates countries/counties where data are unavailable or no coastal region is present. Data for part a from ref.8. Data for part b from ref.10. Data for part c from ref.59.