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Rethinking hierarchies of evidence for sustainable food systems

Indigenous Peoples’ and other traditional knowledge systems are deemed ‘unscientific’ when assessed against conventional hierarchies of evidence. Science–policy processes building on the commitments of the UN Food Systems Summit must ensure that due recognition, acceptance and prominence are given to traditional knowledge.

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Fig. 1: Conventional hierarchy of scientific evidence.


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Not all members of The Global-Hub on Indigenous Peoples’ Food Systems have contributed to this paper and are listed here, although they have approved it.

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Correspondence to Charlotte Milbank.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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The Global-Hub on Indigenous Peoples’ Food Systems. Rethinking hierarchies of evidence for sustainable food systems. Nat Food 2, 843–845 (2021).

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