Environmental implications of food choice are the focus of increasingly extensive research, but less is known about the impacts of dietary patterns of different socio-economic groups of a country, and the trade-offs between nutritional quality and environmental impacts of diet within those groups. We evaluate the impacts of US household dietary patterns on greenhouse gas emissions, blue water footprint, land use and energy consumption across supply chains using an environmentally extended input–output analysis. We compare the nutritional quality of these dietary patterns using healthy eating index scores across individuals’ income and other socio-economic characteristics. Individuals with higher income or education levels are more likely to adopt healthier diets but are also responsible for larger environmental impacts of diet primarily due to a higher consumption of dairy and livestock products, seafood and items with lower energy density but higher nutrient density. Our optimization shows that a healthy diet with lower environmental impacts is achievable within current food budgets for almost 95% of people, and results in average decreases of 2% in food-related greenhouse gas emissions, 24% in land use and 4% in energy consumption, but a 28% increase in blue water consumption. However, such dietary patterns are unaffordable for 38% of Black and Hispanic individuals in the lowest income and education groups. Policies that affect income and food prices making nutritious food more affordable would be needed to achieve better nutrition and improved environmental outcomes simultaneously, particularly for more vulnerable socio-economic groups.
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All the data used in this study are publicly available except the 2015 US input–output table, which can be purchased from IMPLAN and is available upon request due to the data use agreement. The NHANES data can be retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/index.htm. The Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion food prices database is available at https://www.fns.usda.gov/resource/cnpp-data. The distribution of cost comes from https://www.bea.gov/industry/industry-underlying-estimates. The FNDDS and FPED databases are available at https://www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md-bhnrc/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/food-surveys-research-group/docs/. Source data are provided with this paper.
The NHANES data were processed using R studio (based on R v3.6.1) and Stata v14.0. The input–output analysis was conducted in MATLAB v2018a. The statistical analysis and the LMDI decomposition were completed in Stata v14.0. The optimization was carried out in MATLAB v2018a. The figures were produced in R studio (based on R v3.6.1). All code is available upon request.
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under a Young Scholar Program Grant (71904098) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under a Chinese Postdoc Scientific Grant (2019M650704).
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Food thanks Gregory Miller, Laura Pereira and Donald Rose for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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He, P., Feng, K., Baiocchi, G. et al. Shifts towards healthy diets in the US can reduce environmental impacts but would be unaffordable for poorer minorities. Nat Food 2, 664–672 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-021-00350-5