a, Sampling points randomly generated within and outside China and bat location points, weighted by the horseshoe bat species distributions present in East, South and Southeast Asia. b, Hotspots (red) and coldspots (blue) of livestock density. c, Hotspots of forest fragmentation. d, Hotspots of human settlement. Hotspots are based on the Getis–Ord \(G_i^*\) statistic and classified according to their two-tailed significance levels, corresponding to those of a standard normal distribution. Basemap adapted from IUCN Red List database (https://www.iucnredlist.org/search). Map projection EPSG:3395 WGS84/World Mercator.