Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens infect staple calorie crops and economically important commodity crops, thereby posing a significant risk to global food security. Our current agricultural systems — with emphasis on intensive monoculture practices — and globalized markets drive the emergence and spread of new pathogens and problematic traits, such as fungicide resistance. Climate change further promotes the emergence of pathogens on new crops and in new places. Here we review the factors affecting the introduction and spread of pathogens and current disease control strategies, illustrating these with the historic example of the Irish potato famine and contemporary examples of soybean rust, wheat blast and blotch, banana wilt and cassava root rot. Our Review looks to the future, summarizing what we see as the main challenges and knowledge gaps, and highlighting the direction that research must take to face the challenge of emerging crop pathogens.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.67 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Anderson, P. K., Cunningham, A. A., Patel, N. G., Morales, F. J., Epstein, P. R. & Daszak, P. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19, 535–544 (2004).
Fisher, M. C. et al. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health. Nature 484, 186 (2012).
Fones, H. N., Fisher, M. C. & Gurr, S. J. Emerging fungal threats to plants and animals challenge agriculture and ecosystem resilience. Microbiol. Spec. https://doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0027-2016 (2017).
Bebber, D. P., Ramotowski, M. A. & Gurr, S. J. Crop pests and pathogens move polewards in a warming world. Nat. Clim. Change 3, 985–988 (2013).
Fones, H. N. & Gurr, S. J. NOXious gases and the unpredictability of emerging plant pathogens under climate change. BMC Biol. 15, 36 (2017).
Manning, W. J. & Tiedemann, A. V. Climate change: potential effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant diseases. Environ. Pollut. 88, 219–245 (1995).
Ahmed, S., de Labrouhe, D. T. & Delmotte, F. Emerging virulence arising from hybridisation facilitated by multiple introductions of the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii. Fungal Genet. Biol. 49, 847–855 (2012).
Stukenbrock, E. H. Evolution, selection and isolation: a genomic view of speciation in fungal plant pathogens. New Phytol. 199, 895–907 (2013).
Meentemeyer, R. K., Haas, S. E. & Václavík, T. Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol 50, 379–402 (2012).
Turner, R. S. After the famine: plant pathology, Phytophthora infestans and the late blight of potatoes, 1845–1960. Hist. Stud. Phys. Biol. Sci. 34, 341–370 (2005).
Fry, W. Phytophthora infestans: the plant (and R gene) destroyer. Molec. Plant Pathol 9, 385–402 (2008).
Ristaino, J. B., Groves, C. T. & Parra, G. R. PCR amplification of the Irish potato famine pathogen from historic specimens. Nature 411, 695–697 (2001).
Ristaino, J. B. Tracking historic migrations of the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans. Microbes Infect. 4, 1369–1377 (2002).
Yoshida, K. et al. The rise and fall of the Phytophthora infestans lineage that triggered the Irish potato famine. eLife 2, e00731 (2013).
Goodwin, S. B., Cohen, B. A. & Fry, W. E. Panglobal distribution of a single clonal lineage of the Irish potato famine fungus. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11591–11595 (1994).
Fry, W. E. et al. Five reasons to consider Phytophthora infestans a reemerging pathogen. Phytopathol. 105, 966–981 (2015).
Goodwin, S. B., Sujkowski, L. S. & Fry, W. E. Rapid evolution of pathogenicity within clonal lineages of the potato late blight disease fungus. Phytopathol 85, 669–676 (1995).
Drenth, A., Janssen, E. M. & Govers, F. Formation and survival of oospores of Phytophthora infestans under natural conditions. Plant Pathol. 44, 86–94 (1995).
Andersson, B., Sandstrom, M. & Stromberg, A. Indications of soil borne inoculum of Phytophthora infestans. Potato Res. 41, 305–310 (1998).
Fischer, T., Byerlee, D. & Edmeades, G. Crop Yields and Global Food Security (ACIAR, 2014).
The State of Food and Agriculture No. 37 (FAO, 2006).
FAOSTAT (FAO, 2016); http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data
Cassidy, E. S., West, P. C., Gerber, J. S. & Foley, J. A. Redefining agricultural yields: from tonnes to people nourished per hectare. Environ. Res. Lett. 8, 034015 (2013).
Burles, D. Dimensions of Need: An Atlas of Food and Agriculture (FAO, 1995).
Bancroft, J. Report of the board appointed to enquire into the cause of disease affecting livestock and plants. Votes Proc. 3, 1011–1038 (1876).
Ploetz, R. C. Panama disease: a classic and destructive disease of banana. Plant Health Prog. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2000-1204-01-HM (2000).
Hippolyte, I. et al. Foundation characteristics of edible Musa triploids revealed from allelic distribution of SSR markers. Ann. Bot. 109, 937–951 (2012).
Ordonez., N. et al. Worse comes to worst: bananas and Panama disease – when plant and pathogen clones meet. PLoS Pathog. 11, e1005197 (2015).
Galvis, S. Colombia confirms that dreaded fungus has hit its banana plantations. Science https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz1033 (2019).
Rajaram, S. Norman Borlaug: the man I worked with and knew. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 49, 17–30 (2011).
Weiner, J. Applying plant ecological knowledge to increase agricultural sustainability. J. Ecol. 105, 865–870 (2017).
Evenson, R. E. & Gollin, D. Assessing the impact of the Green Revolution, 1960 to 2000. Science 300, 758–762 (2003).
Trewavas, A. Malthus foiled again and again. Nature 418, 668–670 (2002).
Tilman, D., Cassman, K. G., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R. & Polasky, S. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418, 671–677 (2002).
Fones, H. & Gurr, S. The impact of Septoria tritici blotch disease on wheat: an EU perspective. Fungal Genet. Biol. 79, 3–7 (2015).
Linde, C. C., Zhan, J. & McDonald, B. A. Population structure of Mycosphaerella graminicola: from lesions to continents. Phytopathology 92, 946–955 (2002).
McDonald, B. A. & Stukenbrock, E. H. Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B 371, 20160026 (2016).
Zhan, J., Pettway, R. E. & McDonald, B. A. The global genetic structure of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola is characterized by high nuclear diversity, low mitochondrial diversity, regular recombination, and gene flow. Fungal Genet. Biol. 38, 286–297 (2003).
Möller, M. & Stukenbrock, E. H. Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 15, 756–771 (2017).
Plissonneau, C., Stürchler, A. & Croll, D. The evolution of orphan regions in genomes of a fungal pathogen of wheat. mBio 7, e01231-16 (2016).
Stukenbrock, E. H. et al. The making of a new pathogen: insights from comparative population genomics of the domesticated wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola and its wild sister species. Genome Res. 21, 2157–2166 (2011).
Croll, D., Zala, M. & McDonald, B. A. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and large insertions contribute to the rapid evolution of accessory chromosomes in a fungal pathogen. PLoS Genet. 9, e1003567 (2013).
Wittenberg, A. H. et al. Meiosis drives extraordinary genome plasticity in the haploid fungal plant pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola. PLoS One 4, e5863 (2009).
Fones, H. N., Eyles, C. J., Kay, W., Cowper, J. & Gurr, S. J. A role for random, humidity-dependent epiphytic growth prior to invasion of wheat by Zymoseptoria tritici. Fungal Genet. Biol. 106, 51–60 (2017).
Suffert, F., Sache, I. & Lannou, C. Early stages of Septoria tritici blotch epidemics of winter wheat: build-up, overseasoning, and release of primary inoculum. Plant Pathol. 60, 166–177 (2011).
Suffert, F., Ravigné, V. & Sache, I. Seasonal changes drive short-term selection for fitness traits in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81, 6367–6379 (2015).
van den Berg, F., Paveley, N. D. & van den Bosch, F. Dose and number of applications that maximize fungicide effective life exemplified by Zymoseptoria tritici on wheat – a model analysis. Plant Pathol. 65, 1380–1389 (2016).
Torriani, S. F. et al. Zymoseptoria tritici: a major threat to wheat production, integrated approaches to control. Fungal Genet. Biol. 79, 8–12 (2015).
Li, X. et al. The uniqueness of the soybean rust pathosystem: an improved understanding of the risk in different regions of the world. Plant Dis. 94, 796–806 (2010).
Rosa, C. R. E., Spehar, C. R. & Liu, J. Q. Asian soybean rust resistance: an overview. J. Plant Pathol. Microbiol. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7471.1000307 (2015).
Childs, S. P., Buck, J. W. & Li, Z. Breeding soybeans with resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi). Plant Breeding 137, 250–261 (2018).
Islam, M. T. et al. Emergence of wheat blast in Bangladesh was caused by a South American lineage of Magnaporthe oryzae. BMC Biol. 14, 84 (2016).
Valent, B. et al. Pyricularia graminis-tritici is not the correct species name for the wheat blast fungus: response to Ceresini et al. Molec. Plant. Pathol. 20, 173–179 (2019).
Skamnioti, P. & Gurr, S. J. Against the grain: safeguarding rice from rice blast disease. Trends Biotech. 27, 141–150 (2009).
Stukenbrock, E. H. & McDonald, B. A. The origins of plant pathogens in agro-ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 46, 75–100 (2008).
Ceresini, P. C. et al. Wheat blast: from its origins in South America to its emergence as a global threat. Molec. Plant Pathol. 20, 155–172 (2019).
DÁvila, L. S., De Filippi, M. C. C. & Café-Filho, A. C. Both MAT1–1 and MAT 1–2 idiomorphs present in rice blast populations (Magnaporthe oryzae) collected in rice fields in northern Brazil. New Dis. Rep. 40, 3 (2019).
Prabhu, A. S., Filippi, M. C., Silva, G. B., Lobo, V. L. S. & Morais, O. P. in Advances in Genetics, Genomics and Control of Rice Blast Disease (eds Wang, G.-L. & Valent, B.) 257–266 (Springer, 2009).
Inoue, Y. et al. Evolution of the wheat blast fungus through functional losses in a host specificity determinant. Science 357, 80–83 (2017).
Castroagudin, V. et al. The wheat blast pathogen Pyricularia graminis-tritici has complex origins and a disease cycle spanning multiple grass hosts. Preprint at https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/203455v1 (2017).
Mottaleb, K. A. et al. Threat of wheat blast to South Asia’s food security: an ex-ante analysis. PLoS One 13, e0197555 (2018).
Brasier, C. M. & Kirk, S. A. Rapid emergence of hybrids between the two subspecies of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi with a high level of pathogenic fitness. Plant Pathol. 59, 186–199 (2010).
Chavez, V. A., Parnell, S. & van den Bosch, F. V. D. Designing strategies for epidemic control in a tree nursery: the case of ash dieback in the UK. Forests 6, 4135–4145 (2015).
Heuch, J. What lessons need to be learnt from the outbreak of ash dieback disease, Chalara fraxinea in the United Kingdom? Arboricult. J. 36, 32–44 (2014).
Living Ash Project Survey (Living Ash Project); https://livingashproject.org.uk/survey
Skovsgaard, J. P. et al. Silvicultural strategies for Fraxinus excelsior in response to dieback caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. For. Intl J. For. Res. 90, 455–472 (2017).
Managing Ash Dieback Case Studies (Royal Forestry Society, Forestry Commission, 2019).
Kamoun, S., Talbot, N. J. & Islam, M. T. Plant health emergencies demand open science: tackling a cereal killer on the run. PLoS Biol. 17, e3000302 (2019).
Raffaele, S. & Kamoun, S. Genome evolution in filamentous plant pathogens: why bigger can be better. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 10, 417–430 (2012).
Guo, H., Li, C. P., Shi, T., Fan, C. J. & Huang, G. X. First report of Phytophthora palmivora causing root rot of cassava in China. Plant Dis. 96, 1072–1072 (2012).
Lebot, V. Tropical Root and Tuber Crops: Cassava, Sweet Potato, Yams and Aroids Vol. 17 (CABI, 2009).
Reddy, P. P. Plant Protection in Tropical Root and Tuber Crops (Springer, 2015).
Álvarez, E., Llano, G. & Mejía, J. F. Cassava Diseases (CIAT, 2012).
Johnson, I. & Palaniswami, A. Phytophthora tuber rot of cassava - a new record in India. J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 29, 323–332 (1999).
Maizatul-Suriza, M., Dickinson, M. & Idris, A. S. Molecular characterization of Phytophthora palmivora responsible for bud rot disease of oil palm in Colombia. World. J. Microbiol. Biotech. 35, 44 (2019).
Torres, G. A., Sarria, G. A., Martinez, G., Varon, F., Drenth, A. & Guest, D. I. Bud rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora: a destructive emerging disease of oil palm. Phytopathol 106, 320–329 (2016).
Kaur, S., Dhillon, G. S., Brar, S. K., Vallad, G. E., Chand, R. & Chauhan, V. B. Emerging phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina: biology, economic importance and current diagnostic trends. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 38, 136–151 (2012).
Msikita, W., James, B., Wilkinson, H. T. & Juba, J. H. First report of Macrophomina phaseolina causing pre-harvest cassava root rot in Benin and Nigeria. Plant Dis. 82, 1402–1402 (1998).
de Queiroz Brito, A. C. et al. First report of Macrophomina pseudophaseolina causing stem dry rot in cassava in Brazil. J. Plant Pathol. 1, 1 (2019).
Ploetz, R. C. Fusarium wilt of banana. Phytopathol 105, 1512–1521 (2015).
Tropical Race 4: Distribution (Promusa); http://www.promusa.org/tiki-index.php?page=Tropical%20race%204%20-%20TR4#Distribution
Buddenhagen, I. Understanding strain diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and history of introduction of ‘Tropical Race 4’ to better manage banana production. Acta Horticult 828, 193–204 (2009).
Davis, R. I., Moore, N. Y., Bentley, S., Gunua, T. G. & Rahamma, S. Further records of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense from New Guinea. Austral. Plant Pathol. 29, 224 (2000).
Qi, Y. X., Zhang, X., Pu, J. J., Xie, Y. X., Zhang, H. Q. & Huang, S. L. Race 4 identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense from Cavendish cultivars in Hainan province, China. Austral. Plant Dis. 3, 46–47 (2008).
Ploetz, R. et al. Tropical race 4 of Panama disease in the Middle East. Phytoparasitica 43, 283–293 (2015).
Syed, R. N. et al. First report of panama wilt disease of banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Pakistan. J. Plant Pathol. 1, 213 (2015).
Zheng, S. J., García-Bastidas, F. A., Li, X., Zeng, L. & Bai, T. New geographical insights of the latest expansion of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense tropical race 4 into the Greater Mekong subregion. Front. Plant Sci. 9, 457 (2018).
O’Neill, W. T. et al. Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 strain in northern Queensland. Austral. Plant Dis. 11, 33 (2016).
Maymon, M. et al. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 causing Fusarium wilt of Cavendish bananas in Israel. Plant Dis. 59, 348 (2018).
Damodaran, T. et al. First report of Fusarium wilt in banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in India. Plant Dis. 103, 367 (2018).
Coleman, J. J., Wasmann, C. C., Usami, T., White, G. J. & Temporini, E. D. Characterization of the gene encoding Pisatin Demethylase (FoPDA 1) in Fusarium oxysporum. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 24, 1482–1491 (2011).
Wylder, B., Biddle, M., King, K., Baden, R. & Webber, J. Evidence from mortality dating of Fraxinus excelsior indicates ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) was active in England in 2004–2005. For. Int. J. For. Res 91, 434–443 (2018).
Bebber, D. P., Field, E., Gui, H., Mortimer, P., Holmes, T. & Gurr, S. J. Many unreported crop pests and pathogens are probably already present. Glob. Change Biol. 25, 2703–2713 (2019).
Islam, M. T., Kim, K. H. & Choi, J. Wheat blast in Bangladesh: the current situation and future impacts. Plant Pathol. J. 35, 1 (2019).
Lowder, S. K., Skoet, J. & Raney, T. The number, size, and distribution of farms, smallholder farms, and family farms worldwide. World Dev. 87, 16–29 (2016).
Ricciardi, V., Ramankutty, N., Mehrabi, Z., Jarvis, L. & Chookolingo, B. How much of the world’s food do smallholders produce? Global Food Secur. 17, 64–72 (2018).
Khoury, C. K. et al. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 4001–4006 (2014).
Bentham, J. et al. Multidimensional characterization of global food supply from 1961 to 2013. Nat. Food 1, 70–75 (2020).
Schneider, R. W. et al. First report of soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in the continental United States. Plant Dis. 89, 774–774 (2005).
Slaminko, T. L., Miles, M. R., Frederick, R. D., Bonde, M. R. & Hartman, G. L. New legume hosts of Phakopsora pachyrhizi based on greenhouse evaluations. Plant Dis. 92, 767–771 (2008).
Del Cid, C., Krugner, R., Zeilinger, A. R., Daugherty, M. P. & Almeida, R. P. Plant water stress and vector feeding preference mediate transmission efficiency of a plant pathogen. Environ. Entomol 47, 1471–1478 (2018).
Agrios, G. N. Plant Pathology (Academic Press, 2005).
Scholthof, K. B. G. The disease triangle: pathogens, the environment and society. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5, 152–156 (2007).
Chaloner, T. M., Fones, H. N., Varma, V., Bebber, D. P. & Gurr, S. J. A new mechanistic model of weather-dependent Septoria tritici blotch disease risk. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 374, 20180266 (2019).
Zhernakova, A. et al. Population-based metagenomics analysis reveals markers for gut microbiome composition and diversity. Science 352, 565–569 (2016).
Holmes, E. C., Dudas, G., Rambaut, A. & Andersen, K. G. The evolution of Ebola virus: unsights from the 2013–2016 epidemic. Nature 538, 193–200 (2016).
Chaloner, T. M., Gurr, S. J. & Bebber, D. P. Geometry and evolution of the ecological niche in plant-associated microbes. Nat. Commun. (in the press).
Shaw, M. Effects of temperature, leaf wetness and cultivar on the latent period of Mycosphaerella graminicola on winter wheat. Plant Pathol. 39, 255–268 (1990).
Bernard, F. The Development of a Foliar Fungal Pathogen Does React to Temperature, but to which Temperature? PhD thesis, AgroParisTech (2012).
Bernard, Frédéric, Sache, I., Suffert, F. & Chelle, M. The development of a foliar fungal pathogen does react to leaf temperature! New Phytol. 198, 232–240 (2013).
Boixel, A. L., Delestre, G., Legeay, J., Chelle, M. & Suffert, F. Phenotyping thermal responses of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms at the individual and population levels: proof-of-concept, development and application of an experimental framework to a plant pathogen. Microbial Ecol. 78, 42–56 (2019).
Schlenker, W. & Roberts, M. J. Nonlinear temperature effects indicate severe damages to US crop yields under climate change. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 15594–15598 (2009).
Bebber, D. P., Castillo, Á. D. & Gurr, S. J. Modelling coffee leaf rust risk in Colombia with climate reanalysis data. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150458 (2016).
Lewis, C. M. et al. Potential for re-emergence of wheat stem rust in the United Kingdom. Comm. Biol. 1, 13 (2018).
Croll, D. & McDonald, B. A. The genetic basis of local adaptation for pathogenic fungi in agricultural ecosystems. Molec. Ecol. 26, 2027–2040 (2017).
Lovell, D. J., Hunter, T., Powers, S. J., Parker, S. R. & van den Bosch, F. Effect of temperature on latent period of septoria leaf blotch on winter wheat under outdoor conditions. Plant Pathol. 53, 170–181 (2004).
Suffert, F. & Thompson, R. N. Some reasons why the latent period should not always be considered constant over the course of a plant disease epidemic. Plant Pathol. 67, 1831–1840 (2018).
Möller, M., Habig, M., Freitag, M. & Stukenbrock, E. H. Extraordinary genome instability and widespread chromosome rearrangements during vegetative growth. Genetics 210, 517–529 (2018).
IPCC Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report (eds Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R. K. & Meyer L. A.) (IPCC, 2014).
Bayles, R., Flath, K., Hovmøller, M. & de Vallavieille-Pope, C. Breakdown of the Yr17 resistance to yellow rust of wheat in northern Europe. Agronomie. 20, 805–811 (2000).
He, D. C., Zhan, J. S. & Xie, L. H. Problems, challenges and future of plant disease management: from an ecological point of view. J. Integrat. Agricult. 15, 705–715 (2016).
Lee, H. A. et al. Current understandings of plant nonhost resistance. Molec. Plant Microbe Interact. 30, 5–15 (2017).
Jones, J. D. & Dangl, J. L. The plant immune system. Nature 444, 323 (2006).
Gurr, S. J. & Rushton, P. J. Compatibility and disease and incompatibility and defence in plant–pathogen interactions. Trends Biotechnol. 6, 275–282 (2005).
McDowell, J. M. & Woffenden, B. J. Plant disease resistance genes: recent insights and potential applications. Trends Biotechnol. 21, 178–183 (2003).
Ashkani, S. et al. Molecular breeding strategy and challenges towards improvement of blast disease resistance in rice crop. Front. Plant Sci. 6, 886 (2015).
Brown, J. K. Durable resistance of crops to disease: a Darwinian perspective. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol 53, 513–539 (2015).
Fuchs, M. Pyramiding resistance-conferring gene sequences in crops. Curr. Op. Virol. 26, 36–42 (2017).
Singh, R. P. et al. The emergence of Ug99 races of the stem rust fungus is a threat to world wheat production. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 49, 465–481 (2011).
Singh, R. P., Huerta-Espino, J. & William, H. M. Genetics and breeding for durable resistance to leaf and stripe rusts in wheat. Turk. J. Agric. Forest. 29, 121–127 (2005).
Rehman, M. U. et al. Adult plant resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Pakistani advanced lines and wheat varieties. Austral. J. Crop Sci 12, 1633–1639 (2018).
Garrett, K. A. et al. Resistance genes in global crop breeding networks. Phytopathol. 107, 1268–1278 (2017).
Byerlee, D. & Dubin, H. J. Crop improvement in the CGIAR as a global success story of open access and international collaboration. Internat. J. Comm 4, 452–480 (2009).
Global Fungicides Market Research Report (Globe Newswire, 2018).
Oliver, R. P. & Hewitt, H. G. Fungicides in Crop Protection (CABI, 2014).
Fisher, M. C., Hawkins, N. J., Sanglard, D. & Gurr, S. J. Worldwide emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs challenges human health and food security. Science 360, 739–742 (2018).
Steinberg, G. et al. A lipophilic cation protects crops against fungal pathogens by multiple modes of action. Nat. Commun. 11, 1608 (2020).
McDougall, P. Evolution of the Crop Protection Industry Since 1960 (Informa, 2019).
Bosch, F. V. D., Oliver, R., van den Berg, F. & Paveley, N. Governing principles can guide fungicide-resistance management tactics. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 52, 175–195 (2018).
Elderfield, J. A., Lopez-Ruiz, F. J., van den Bosch, F. & Cunniffe, N. J. Using epidemiological principles to explain fungicide resistance management tactics: Why do mixtures outperform alternations? Phytopathol. 108, 803–817 (2018).
EU votes to withdraw chlorothalonil. AgriTradeNews (29 March 2019).
S.J.G. is a CIFAR Fellow in the Fungal Kingdom: Opportunities and Threats programme. This work was funded in part by GFS/BBSRC grant no. BB/N020847/1 (awarded to D.B., S.G. and G.S.) and BBSRC grant no. BB/PO18335 (awarded to G.S. and S.G.) and BBSRC doctoral studentship BB/M009122/1 to T.C.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Fones, H.N., Bebber, D.P., Chaloner, T.M. et al. Threats to global food security from emerging fungal and oomycete crop pathogens. Nat Food 1, 332–342 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-020-0075-0