The world faces a global nutrition crisis, most clearly evidenced by the twin pandemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Yet, substantial confusion and controversy exist about optimal dietary priorities and policy approaches to address these challenges. This paper reviews the evolution of nutritional evidence, emerging areas and corresponding policy lessons to address obesity and T2DM. This includes the complexity of diet–health pathways for long-term weight maintenance and metabolic health; a need to focus on both increasing protective foods (for example, minimally processed, phytochemical-rich foods) and reducing detrimental factors (for example, refined starches, added sugars and processed meats); and critical assessment of popular diets for weight-loss and metabolic health. Emerging evidence highlights areas for further research, including those related to food processing, non-nutritive sweeteners, emulsifiers, the microbiome, flavonoids and personalized nutrition. Evidence-based, multi-sectoral policy actions to address the global nutrition crisis are shown to span several domains, including health systems, economic incentives, school and workplace environments, quality and labelling standards, and innovation and entrepreneurship.
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D.M. acknowledges support from the National Health, Lung, and Blood Institute (grant no. R01 HL115189), National Institutes of Health. D.M. also acknowledges research funding from the National Institutes of Health and the Gates Foundation; personal fees from GOED, Nutrition Impact, Pollock Communications, Bunge, Indigo Agriculture, Amarin, Acasti Pharma, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, America’s Test Kitchen, and Danone; scientific advisory board, Brightseed, DayTwo, Elysium Health and Filtricine; and chapter royalties from UpToDate—all outside the submitted work.
Tufts University holds patents US8889739 and US9987243 (unlicensed), listing D.M. as a co-inventor, for use of trans-palmitoleic acid to prevent and treat insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and related conditions, as well as reduce metabolic risk factors.
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Mozaffarian, D. Dietary and policy priorities to reduce the global crises of obesity and diabetes. Nat Food 1, 38–50 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-019-0013-1
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