Highly automated systems are becoming omnipresent. They range in function from self-driving vehicles to advanced medical diagnostics and afford many benefits. However, there are assurance challenges that have become increasingly visible in high-profile crashes and incidents. Governance of such systems is critical to garner widespread public trust. Governance principles have been previously proposed offering aspirational guidance to automated system developers; however, their implementation is often impractical given the excessive costs and processes required to enact and then enforce the principles. This Perspective, authored by an international and multidisciplinary team across government organizations, industry and academia, proposes a mechanism to drive widespread assurance of highly automated systems: independent audit. As proposed, independent audit of AI systems would embody three ‘AAA’ governance principles of prospective risk Assessments, operation Audit trails and system Adherence to jurisdictional requirements. Independent audit of AI systems serves as a pragmatic approach to an otherwise burdensome and unenforceable assurance challenge.
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We owe special thanks to the participants of the CCC Workshop on Assured Autonomy for their ideas, inspiration and discussion that contributed to this paper. C.H. is a former Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board.
G.F. is a consultant for the World Bank Group on autonomous vehicle regulation and is a ForHumanity fellow; he thanks the US National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), the Icelandic Fulbright Commission and the National Science Foundation for research funding. B.S. is a ForHumanity fellow. J.B. is a US government civil servant working for and funded by NASA. R.C. is the Executive Director of ForHumanity, a registered 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. A.D. is a member of the Maryland Cybersecurity Council, established by the Maryland State Legislature to work with the National Institute of Standards and Technology and other federal agencies, private sector businesses and private cybersecurity experts to improve cybersecurity in Maryland. D.D. is an external member of the Salesforce Advisory Council on Ethical & Humane Use of Technology. A.G. is a US government civil servant working for and funded by NASA; he is a voting member of SAE 34 working group on AI in Aviation that is writing guidelines for AI in aviation. C.H. is the Chairman of the Washington Metrorail Safety Commission where the opinions expressed in this article are his and not those of the Commission; he is bound by confidentiality agreements that prevent him from disclosing other competing interests in this work. M.J. holds an EPSRC Fellowship investigating ethical data recorders in robots, leads a project on legality and ethics of data recorders in autonomous vehicles and is a member of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Data Analytics; she is a Director of ORBIT-RRI Ltd. H.J. is the Swedish Science and Innovation Counsellor to the United States. A.J.L. is Vice President and Global Outreach Director at Microsoft Research and currently serves as the Science Representative on the steering committee of the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence. A.K.M. is a Director of Minerva Intelligence Inc; he is a member of the Centre for AI Decision-making and Action (CAIDA) Steering Committee, the AI network of British Columbia (AInBC) Board and The Confederation of Laboratories for Artificial Intelligence Research in Europe (CLAIRE) international advisory board. C.M. is a Fellow of the Alan Turing Institute, a member of the Strategic Advisory Board of Zenzic and of the ENISA CarSec Expert Group. S.E.P. is the Chief National Cyber Security Adviser of the Icelandic Government, chairs the Icelandic Cyber Security Council and is a member of the Board of the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA); he leads the development and implementation of Iceland’s cybersecurity strategy including the cybersecurity aspects of AI. A.W. sits on British Standards Institute committee AMT/010/01 Ethics for Robots and Autonomous Systems, the executive committee of the IEEE Standards Association Global Initiative on Ethics of Autonomous and Intelligent Systems and the WEF Global AI Council; he is a member of the Advisory Committee of robotics company Karakuri Ltd. Z.K.Y. leads the development and implementation of Singapore’s AI Governance Framework and is a member of OECD’s Network of Experts in AI and the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence’s expert working group on Data Governance. Authors not mentioned declare no competing interests.
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Falco, G., Shneiderman, B., Badger, J. et al. Governing AI safety through independent audits. Nat Mach Intell 3, 566–571 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42256-021-00370-7
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