We may not cooperate with friendly machines

In cooperative games, humans are biased against AI systems even when such systems behave better than our human counterparts. This raises a question: should AI systems ever be allowed to conceal their true nature and lie to us for our own benefit?

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Ishowo-Oloko, F. et al. Nat. Mach. Intell. (2019).

  2. 2.

    Chikaraishi, T., Yoshikawa, Y., Ogawa, K., Hirata, O. & Ishiguro, H. Future Internet 9, 75 (2017).

  3. 3.

    Crandall, J. W. et al. Nat. Commun. 9, 233 (2018).

  4. 4.

    Axelrod, R. & Hamilton, W. D. Science 211, 1390–1396 (1981).

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael Rovatsos.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rovatsos, M. We may not cooperate with friendly machines. Nat Mach Intell 1, 497–498 (2019).

Download citation

Further reading