Lipids are essential metabolites, which function as energy sources, structural components and signalling mediators. Most cells are able to convert carbohydrates into fatty acids, which are often converted into neutral lipids for storage in the form of lipid droplets. Accumulating evidence suggests that lipogenesis plays a crucial role not only in metabolic tissues for systemic energy homoeostasis but also in immune and nervous systems for their proliferation, differentiation and even pathophysiological roles. Thus, excessive or insufficient lipogenesis is closely associated with aberrations in lipid homoeostasis, potentially leading to pathological consequences, such as dyslipidaemia, diabetes, fatty liver, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. For systemic energy homoeostasis, multiple enzymes involved in lipogenesis are tightly controlled by transcriptional and post-translational modifications. In this Review, we discuss recent findings regarding the regulatory mechanisms, physiological roles and pathological importance of lipogenesis in multiple tissues such as adipose tissue and the liver, as well as the immune and nervous systems. Furthermore, we briefly introduce the therapeutic implications of lipogenesis modulation.
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We thank all the laboratory members for helping with reading and commenting on the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation, funded by the Korean government (NRF-2020R1A3B2078617 to J.B.K.).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Jeon, Y.G., Kim, Y.Y., Lee, G. et al. Physiological and pathological roles of lipogenesis. Nat Metab 5, 735–759 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-023-00786-y
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