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Promises and pitfalls of beta cell–replacement therapies

Diabetes therapeutic approaches continue to expand and to be refined. As the field moves toward more intensive insulin- and cell-based therapies, care must be taken to mimic healthy physiological insulin dynamics and avoid hyperinsulinemia, with its deleterious downstream complications.

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Fig. 1: Progress and future challenges in the development of stem cell–derived beta-like cells for the treatment of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications.


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We thank many colleagues, including J. Kushner, F. Lynn and T. Kieffer, for illuminating discussions on this topic over the years. We thank all of the authors whose work has inspired us.

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J.K. and J.D.J. cowrote the manuscript.

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Correspondence to James D. Johnson.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Peer review information Nature Metabolism thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Kolic, J., Johnson, J.D. Promises and pitfalls of beta cell–replacement therapies. Nat Metab 3, 1036–1037 (2021).

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