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The importance of international standards for the graphene community

If graphene and related 2D materials are to be used commercially, buyers need to have confidence in the measured properties of the material they obtain from suppliers. Scientists from international standards committees describe how the first joint ISO/IEC measurement standard, published this month, will help.

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Fig. 1: Flow chart of the measurement techniques and associated measurands obtained for the measurement of graphene in powders and liquid dispersions from ISO/TS 21356-1.


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This project has received funding from the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) as part of the ISO-G-SCoPe, 19NRM04 project. The EMPIR program is co-financed by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program and the EMPIR Participating States. The authors thank Prof. Mark Gee and Dr. Alexander G. Shard from the National Physical Laboratory, UK, for discussions on the manuscript.

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C.C. and A.P wrote the article. E.F., T.F., J.H., A.H. W., D.K, C.P., L.R. and G.S. reviewed and edited before submission.

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Correspondence to Andrew J. Pollard.

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Related links

ISO Online Browsing Platform:

ISO/TR 19733:2019 Nanotechnologies — Matrix of properties and measurement techniques for graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials:

ISO/TS 21356-1:2021 Nanotechnologies — Structural characterization of graphene — Part 1: Graphene from powders and dispersions:

ISO/TS 80004-13:2017 (2017) Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary — Part 13: Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials:

VAMAS TWA41 ‘Graphene and Related 2D Materials’:

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Clifford, C.A., Martins Ferreira, E.H., Fujimoto, T. et al. The importance of international standards for the graphene community. Nat Rev Phys 3, 233–235 (2021).

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