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Why is the Hall conductance quantized?

Why the Hall conductance is quantized was an open problem in condensed matter theory for much of the past 40 years. Spyridon Michalakis who worked on the solution — published in 2015 — gives a personal take on how the field evolved.

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Correspondence to Spyridon Michalakis.

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The author declares no competing interests.

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Aizenman’s list of open problems in mathematical physics:

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Michalakis, S. Why is the Hall conductance quantized?. Nat Rev Phys 2, 392–393 (2020).

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