After many years of development of the basic tools, quantum simulation with ultracold atoms has now reached the level of maturity at which it can be used to investigate complex quantum processes. Planning of new experiments and upgrading of existing set-ups requires a broad overview of the available techniques, their specific advantages and limitations. This Technical Review aims to provide a comprehensive compendium of the state of the art. We discuss the basic principles, the available techniques and their current range of applications. Focusing on the simulation of various phenomena in solid-state physics through optical lattice experiments, we review their basics, the necessary techniques and the accessible physical parameters. We outline how to control and use interactions with external potentials and interactions between the atoms, and how to design new synthetic gauge fields and spin–orbit coupling. We discuss the latest progress in site-resolved techniques that use quantum gas microscopes, and describe the unique features of quantum simulation experiments with two-electron atomic species.
Quantum simulation with ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices can be used to study condensed-matter quantum many-body systems, which are hard to simulate with conventional computers.
The control of interatomic interactions is key to successful quantum simulation, and it can be implemented at short range and long range through various methods.
Non-equilibrium phenomena can be studied by using controlled dissipation or lattice perturbations.
Quantum gas microscopes currently offer the most precise tool for the manipulation and readout of optical lattice quantum simulators.
The use of artificial gauge fields enables the simulation of charged particle physics; furthermore, non-trivial effects are accessible through use of spin–orbit coupling, topological lattices and synthetic dimensions.
Going from alkaline-earth-metal to two-electron alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms allows the study of SU(N) symmetrical systems.
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This work was supported through the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) programme of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (grant nos 25220711, 17H06138, 18H05405, 18H05228 and 19H01854), the Impulsing Paradigm Change through Disruptive Technologies (ImPACT) programme, the CREST programme of the Japan Science and Technology (JST) Agency (grant no. JPMJCR1673), and the MEXT Quantum Leap Flagship Program (MEXT Q-LEAP) (grant no. JPMXS0118069021). S.S. acknowledges support from the JST, PRESTO (grant no. JPMJPR1664) and JSPS (19K14639).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Schäfer, F., Fukuhara, T., Sugawa, S. et al. Tools for quantum simulation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Nat Rev Phys 2, 411–425 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42254-020-0195-3
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