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Enabling real-time multi-messenger astrophysics discoveries with deep learning

Abstract

Multi-messenger astrophysics is a fast-growing, interdisciplinary field that combines data, which vary in volume and speed of data processing, from many different instruments that probe the Universe using different cosmic messengers: electromagnetic waves, cosmic rays, gravitational waves and neutrinos. In this Expert Recommendation, we review the key challenges of real-time observations of gravitational wave sources and their electromagnetic and astroparticle counterparts, and make a number of recommendations to maximize their potential for scientific discovery. These recommendations refer to the design of scalable and computationally efficient machine learning algorithms; the cyber-infrastructure to numerically simulate astrophysical sources, and to process and interpret multi-messenger astrophysics data; the management of gravitational wave detections to trigger real-time alerts for electromagnetic and astroparticle follow-ups; a vision to harness future developments of machine learning and cyber-infrastructure resources to cope with the big-data requirements; and the need to build a community of experts to realize the goals of multi-messenger astrophysics.

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Fig. 1: Visualization of the results of a numerical relativity simulation of two neutron stars before and after a merger.

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Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge support from NVIDIA, Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, and the National Science Foundation through grant NSF-1848815. Artwork in this manuscript was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through grants ACI-1238993, NSF-1550514 and TG-PHY160053.

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E.A.H. led and coordinated the writing of this Expert Recommendation. All authors contributed to developing the ideas, and writing and reviewing this manuscript. S.R. produced the artwork in figure 1.

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Correspondence to E. A. Huerta.

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Huerta, E.A., Allen, G., Andreoni, I. et al. Enabling real-time multi-messenger astrophysics discoveries with deep learning. Nat Rev Phys 1, 600–608 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42254-019-0097-4

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