Figure 4: Communications Physics

Fig. 4

From: Dynamical equilibration across a quenched phase transition in a trapped quantum gas

Fig. 4

Mean defect number dynamics and dependence on cooling ramp. a Evolution of mean defect (vortex) number, Nv, after the onset of condensation for different τR, highlighting the initial rapid defect decay regime (t- t bec  30 ms) and the subsequent regime where few vortices prevail for an extended amount of time. b Dependence of mean defect number on inverse cooling rate (dT/dt)−1 for two different simulated evolution times t − tbec ≈ 50 ms (red diamonds) and ≈200 ms (blue squares) compared to corresponding experimental values after a free evolution time of 250 ms (black circles). The solid line is a linear fit to the experimental data in log–log scale in the slow quench region (last nine points). The emergence of a plateau-like region on the left (quenches with τ R  144 ms, or high dT/dt) is consistent with the saturation of the number of long-lived defects seen for long simulation times in (a). Error bars in vortex numbers represent statistical uncertainties (see Methods); horizontal error bars in (a) arise from the uncertainty in the determination of tbec